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Bidens L., Sp. Pl. : 831 (1753).

Kerneria Moench, Meth. : 595 (1794), non Kernera Medik. (1792), nom. cons. Type: Kerneria tetragona Moench, nom. illegit. = Bidens pilosa L.

Ceratocehpalus Vaill. ex Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 7: 432 (1817), non Ceratocephalus Moench (1794), nom. superfl. Type: Bidens pilosa L.

Campylotheca Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59: 321 (1829). Type: Bidens micrantha Gaudich.

Adenolepis Less., Linnaea 6: 510 (1831). Type: Adenolepis pulchella Less. = Bidens pulchella (Less.) Sch.Bip.

Delucia DC., Prodr. 5: 633 (1836). Type: Delucia ostruthioides DC. = Bidens ostruthioides (DC.) Sch.Bip.

Diodonta Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., ser. 2, 7: 360 (1841). Type: not designated.

Diatonta Walp., Repert. 2: 614 (1843), orth. var. of Diodonta Nutt.

Type: Bidens tripartita L.

References

Ballard, R. (1986). Bidens pilosa complex (Asteraceae) in North and Central America. Amer. J. Bot. 73(10): 14521465.

Robinson, H. (2006). Bidens. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera AL. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 4975.

Sherff., E.E. (1937). The genus Bidens. Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 16: 1709.

Bidens abadiae DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens adhaerescens Vell., Fl. Flum.: 348 (1825)[7 Sept. - 28 Nov. 1829]; Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 88 (1831) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens affinis Klotzsch & Otto, Linnaea 15: 2 (1841) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens alausensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818) = Bidens odorata Cav.

*Bidens andicola Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 186 (1818). Type: Crescit in diclivitate nobilissimi montis Chimborazo, alt. 1750 hex. 0. Floret Junio. Holotype: P-Bonpl.; isotype: B-W.

Bidens fruticulosa Mey. & Walp., Nov. Actorum. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 271 (1843). Type: Peruvia: in planitie circa Tacorum, alt. 1417,000 ped. (v. s.). Holotype B.

Bidens macrantha Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 186 (1874); Pl. Lorentz. : 138 (1874). Types: Tucuman, copiose in pascuis alpinis pr. Cienega. Catamarca, in convalle excelsa Granadillas pr. Yakutula. Holotype: B.

Bidens cosmantha Griseb. var. diversifolia Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 198 (1879); Symb. Argent. : 198 (1879). Type: [Argentina] Ct. Holotype: GOET; isotype: CORD.

Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] a normalis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Cochabamba. Holotype: NY.

Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] b heterophyllus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898). Type: Bolivia: La Paz (No. 141 Bang im Berl. bot. Mus.). Holotype: B; isotypes: NY 2.

Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] d decomposita Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Cochabamba. Holotype: NY.

Bidens grandiflora Balbis [var.] b brevilobus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898). Types: Bolivia: Pass zwischen Cochabamba und Rui Juntas 26003000 m. [Bolivia. Pass zwischen Cochabamba und Rio Juntas, 26003000 m, 1320 Apr 1892, Kuntze s.n.; 2600 m, 14 Apr 1892, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 328]. Types: NY.

Bidens buchtienii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76(2): 150 (1923). Type: Dr. Otto Buchtien 4304, at altitude of 3800 m., La Paz Bolivia, April 8, 1919 (type and cotype in Herb. Field Mus.). Holotype: F; isotype: F.

*Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] tarijensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85(1): 14 (1928). Type: K. Fiebrig 3460, Tarija, Bolivia, March 9, 1904. Holotype: B. Sherff (1928) also cited the following paratypes, also in B: Fiebrig 3461 p.p., Fiebrig 3004a p.p.

*Bidens andicola Sherff var. tarijensis Sherff f. dissecta Sherff., Bot. Gaz. 85(1): 14 (1928). Type: K. Fiebrig 3147, alt. 2200 m., Tarija, Bolivia, March 13, 1904. Holotype: B. Sherff also cited the following paratypes, also in B: Fiebrig 3004a p.p., Fiebrig 4361 p.p.

Bidens andicola Kunth var. cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff f. buchtienii (Sherff) Sherff, Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 16: 502 (1937).

Bidens pusila Sherff, Sida 1(6): 369 (1964). Type: Harriet G. Barclay & Pedro Juajibioy 7986, herb with spreading stems and finely dissected leaves; heads with wide, yellow rays; disk flowers yellow; very common; large, open, grassy pramo, alt. circ. 3700 m., western side of range above Pujil , west of Latacunga, campsite, disturbed roadside, Pramo de Mil n, Cordillera Occidental, Prov. Cotopaxi, Ecuador, July 15-16, 1959. Holotype: US (2372755).

Argentina, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz), Ecuador.

*Bidens andicola Kunth var. cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85(1): 2 (1928) = Bidens cosmantha Griseb.

*Bidens andicola Kunth var. cosmantha (Griseb.) Sherff f. buchtienii (Sherff) Sherff, Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 16: 502 (1937) = Bidens andicola Kunth

*Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] g decomposita Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898) = Bidens andicola Kunth

*Bidens andicola Kunth var. mandonii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 380 (1925) = Bidens mandonii (Sherff) Cabrera

*Bidens andicola Kunth [var.] tarijensis Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 85(1): 14 (1928) = Bidens andicola Kunth

*Bidens andicola Sherff var. tarijensis Sherff f. dissecta Sherff., Bot. Gaz. 85(1): 14 (1928)= Bidens andicola Kunth

Bidens antiguensis Coult., Bot. Gaz. 16(4): 100 (1891) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens artemisiifolia Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 49 (1843) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens attenuata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61(6): 495 (1916) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens barrancae M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 18: 82 (1933) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens berteriana Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 454 (1826) = Cosmos caudatus Kunth

Bidens bimucronata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 184 (1851) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens bonplandii Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald: 308 (1856), nom. illegit. based on Cosmos tenellus Kunth = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens brachycarpa DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens brittonii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 492 (1913) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens buchtienii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76(2): 150 (1923) = Bidens andicola Kunth

Bidens californica DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens caracasana DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens caucalidea DC., Prodr. 5: 604 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens caudata (Kunth) Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 308 (1856) = Cosmos caudatus Kunth

Bidens consolidifolia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 185 (1851) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens coreopsidis DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens coreopsidis DC. var. procumbens Donn. Sm., Bot. Gaz. 42(4) : 299 (1906) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens coreopsidis DC. var. reptans (L.) DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens crithmifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 183 (1818) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens daucifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens deamii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 490 (1913) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens decomposita Wall. ex DC. var. b hirsutior C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. : 141 (1876) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens decussata Pav. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836), nom nud. pro syn. based on B. hispida = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens delphinifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 183 (1818) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens exaristata DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens exigua Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 70(2): 89 (1920). Type: C. H. T. Townsend 1513, alt. 1607 m., Chosica Canyon, Peru, April 20, 1913 (Herb. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 602943, type). Holotype: US.

Argentina, Bolivia (?), Peru.

Bidens glaberrima DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens grandiflorus Balbis [var.] a humilis (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth [var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff] cited with one collection from Bolivia, Bolivia: zwischen Oruro und Tapacari 4200 m.

*Bidens grandiflorus Balbis [var.] b brevilobus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898) = Bidens andicola Kunth

*Bidens grandiflorus Balbis [var.] g longilobus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898). Type: Bolivia: Cochabamba. Wetter & Zanoni (1985) cited no material in NY against this name, and Sherff (1937) left the taxon as insertae sedis.

Bidens hirsuta Nutt., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. n.s. 7: 369 (1841) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens hirtella Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 182 (1818) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens hispida Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 186 (1818) = Bidens pilosa L.

*Bidens humilis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth [var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff]

Bidens humilis Kunth [var.] b macrantha Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 69 (1856) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens humilis Kunth var. major Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

*Bidens humilis Kunth var. tenuifolia Sch.Bip. ex Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 198 (1879) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth [var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff]

Bidens inermis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 278 (1888) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens involucratum Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Secc. 2, Bot. 8: 49 (1891) = Heterosperma nanum (Nutt.) Sherff

Bidens leucantha L. f. discoidea (Sch.Bip.) Krauss, Beitr. Fl. Cap. Natal. : 77 (1846) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens leucantha L. var. pilosa (L.) Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub. : 155 (1866) = Bidens pilosa L.

*Bidens longipetiolata Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 131 (1912) = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla var. patula (Gardner) Sherff [?= Bidens speciosa Gardner var. patula (Gardner) Schulz]

*Bidens macrantha Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 186 (1874) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens mandonii (Sherff) Cabrera, Fl. Prov. Jujuy 20: 419 (1978).

*Bidens andicola Kunth var. mandonii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 380 (1925). Type: G. Mandon 48 (type) and 44 pro parte, in uncultivated places, alt. 2650 m., vicinity of Sorata (San Pedro), Bolivia, March 1859 (Herb. Boiss.; Herb. Brit. Mus.; Herb. Deless.; Herb. Kew; Herb. Par.; Herb. Mus. Vienna). Holotype: G; isotypes: BM, K, P, W.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz).

Bidens mexicana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56: 491 (1913) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens mollis Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 49 (1843) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens multiserrata Sch.Bip., Linnaea 30: 181 (1859-60), nom. nud. = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

Bidens odorata Cav., Icon. Descr. Pl. 1: 9, t. 13 (1791). Type: Habitat prope Mexico. [annual target symbol]. Vidi floridam in Rehio horto Matritensi die 24 Novembri, quam olim colui in horto Exc. Ducis del Infantado. Note: There are four sheets in MA attributed to this material. MA (475436), illustrated in Cavanilles herbarium microfiche 18/C2 is simply labelled on a typewritten Herb. Horti Bot. Matrit. label De Mjico in Horto Issy.; MA (475434) (Fiche 18/C3) is simply marked Bidens odorata Cav.; MA (475435)(Fiche 18/C4) bears two handwritten labels, the upper YT'Telapatl, the lower Bidens odorata Cav./Icon. tab./Ne iter, and a typewritten label with the species name; MA (475436 [sic!] '- note duplicated accession number) (Fiche 18/C5) bears one handwritten label Bidens odorata/Icon. tab. 13/Mexico/Culta in Issy 1785 and one typewritten label with the species name and De Mjico in Horto Issy.

Coreopsis odoratissima Cav. ex Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 477 (1807), nom. illegit. based on Bidens odorata Cav.

Coreopsis ferulifolia Jacq. var. odoratissima (Cav. ex Pers.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 477 (1807).

Bidens alausensis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818). Type : ''Crescit inter Alausi et Tambo de Guamote, alt. 1300 hex. (Regno Quitensi.) K? Floret Julio. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens scandicina Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Llactacunga et Hambato Quitensium, alt. 1400 hex. 0 [Humboldt & Bonpland Bonpl. mss. n. 3135. Latacunga]. Holotype: P-Bonpl.; isotype: B-W 3135; there is a second sheet, B-W (15026), but this is unmarked.

Cosmos tenellus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 188 (1818). Type: Crescit locis subfrigidis, inter Huehuetoca et urbem Mexici, alt. 1200 hex. 0 Floret Septembri. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Cosmos pilosus Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl.. 4 (ed. folio): 189 (1818). Type: Crescit locis aridis, prope Santa Rosa de la Sierra, alt. 1300 hex. (Nova Hispania.) K Floret Septembri. Holotype: P-Bonpl. (mss. n. 4244. S. Rosa).

Bidens striata Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., 3: pl. 237 (1829). Type: This handsome Autumn-flowering plant is a native of Mexico, and the specimens from which our drawing was made was kindly sent to us from the superb collection of Robert Barclay, Esq. of Bury-hill, ...We also received the specimens of it from Mr. Tate of Sloane-street Nursery, who raised a great many plants of it from seeds sown in open borders. ... Mr. Tate received the seeds, ... from George Ackerman, Esq. of the Strand, who received them from Mexico. Note: Robinson (2006: 58) noted the holotype as the plate. Location of type material is unknown, however, there are two relevant sheets in K. One, ex herb. Benthamianum, which is labelled as Bidens striata Sw./DC. Prod. 5. 597/Hort. Soc. Hort. Lond 6-9-29., the other, ex herb. Hookerianum, which is labelled Bidens striata/Mexic./Sw. Fl. G. tab. 237/Hort. Barcl.. The latter is a good candidate at least for an isotype. Both of these specimens were determined as Bidens pilosa var. radiata Sch.Bip. by Sherff.

Coreopsis multifida DC., Prodr. 5: 573 (1836). Type: in Peruvi? legit cl. Pavon ex h. Thibaud. H c refero specimina duo: unum spontaneum aetate provectius ligulis nullis verisim. deciduis, alt. hortense junius ligulis albidis caeterm simillimum. (v.s.) Note: There is apparently only one sheet in G-DC, the right hand speicmen with a label indicating that it was a Pav n collection.

Coreopsis multifida DC. var. b mutica DC., Prodr. 5: 573 (1836). Type: in Peruvi und semina ad hort. Par. olim misit cl. Dombey. ... (v.s. ex h. Lhr.) Holotype: G-DC. Note: There is a second unlabelled sheet with just the taxon name on a label, this may be a duplicate of the material sent by Dombey.

Bidens exaristata DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836). Type: '' in Mexico inter Vittoriam et Tulam legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 2220). ... (v.s.) Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens brachycarpa DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836). Type: in Mexico ad Tampico de Tamaulipas legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 5 et 113). ... (v.s.)

Bidens caracasana DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836). Type: circa Caracas legit cl. Vargas. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Vargas.) Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens daucifolia DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836). Type: ' in Mexico legit cl. Berlandier fort in valle Toluccan (commixt. sub n. 1138). ... (v.s.) Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens abadiae DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836). Type: in Peruvi circa limam legit cl. Abadia. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Abadia.). Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens caucalidea DC., Prodr. 5: 604 (1836). Type: in Mexici valle Toluccan legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 1138). ... (v. s.) Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens bimucronata Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 184 (1851). Type: ''In insula St. Domingo. Jaeger coll. n. 146. Holotype: most probably in LE. Note: Robinson (2006: 59) cited the holotype as in PZV - [Petrozavodsk]. This is interesting, especially since Turczaninov began writing his Decas ... (only published in the Bulletin) just before he retired in the early 1840s. From 184547 he continued writing, based in Taganrog, continuing in Charkow until his death (18471863). It is quite likely that Turczaninov worked on material in LE (which is where Jaegers original herbarium is deposited) as well as CW. Since the collections in Charkow (= Kharkov) (CW) were transferred to Kiev (KW), the Komarov Institute, St. Petersberg (LE) and the University Herbarium, Kharkov (CWU) it is extremely unlikely that the holotype of B. bimucronata was ever lodged in PZV - a herbarium founded in 1947, and cited as having only 800 specimens in 1990.

Bidens bonplandii Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald: 308 (1856), nom. illegit. based on Cosmos tenellus Kunth

Bidens rosea Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald: 308 (1856), nom. illegit. based on Cosmos pilosus Kunth

Bidens inermis S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 278 (1888). Type: [Mexico:] On rocky ledges in thin soil, Arroyo Aucho, in the Sierra Madre, Chihuahua; C. G. Pringle (n. 1291) Oct., 1887. Holotype: F; isotypes: MO, UC.

Bidens rosea Sch.Bip. var. calcicola Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 41: 264 (1905). Type: Mexico. State of Morelos: on limestone hills, Yautepec, near Cuernavaca, altitude 1220 m., 21 October, 1902, C. G. Pringle, no. 11,340. Holotype: GH.

Bidens pilosa L. var. brachycarpa (DC.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Smbol. Ant. 7: 138 (1911).

Bidens pilosa L. var. bimucronata (Turcz.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symbol. Ant. 7: 138 (1911).

Bidens deamii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 490 (1913). Type: Chas. C. Deam, Cholula, Mexico, January 1, 1899. Holotype: F.

Bidens ramosissima Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 491 (1913). Type: W. E. Safford 1391, near Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, February 23, 1907. Holotype: US.

Bidens pilosa L. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 377 (1925).

Bidens pilosa L. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff f. dissecta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 379 (1925). Type: Heyde and Lux 6164, alt. 1300 m., Malpais, Dept. Santa Rosa, Guatemala, November 1893. Holotype: GH; isotypes: B 2, BM, C, F, G 4, K.

*Bidens pilosa L. var. alausensis (Kunth) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81(1): 35 (1926).

*Bidens pilosa L. var. alausensis (Kunth) Sherff f. scandicina (Kunth) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81(1): 36 (1926).

Bidens orendainae M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 18: 82 (1933). Type: [Mexico] [M. E. Jones] No. 27770, Orendain, Nov. 27 1930, on bottom in fields. Holotype: POM; isotype: NY

Bidens barrancae M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 18: 82 (1933). Type: [Mexico:] [M. E. Jones] No. 27757, La Barranca Guadalajara, Nov. 23 1930. ... a conspicuous field weed. Holotype: POM.

Bidens odorata Cav. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Ballard, Amer. J. Bot. 73(10): 1462 (1986).

Bidens odorata Cav. var. oaxacensis Ballard, Amer. J. Bot. 73(10): 1462 (1986). Type: Mexico. Oaxaca: along Hwy 190, 22 mi N of Cd. Oaxaca, 19 Oct 1971, Melcher, Ballard & Hart 71-183. Holotype: IA.

Bidens odorata Cav. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Ballard, Amer. J. Bot. 73(10): 1462 (1986) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens odorata Cav. var. oaxacensis Ballard, Amer. J. Bot. 73(10): 1462 (1986) = Bidens odoarata Cav.

Bidens orendainae M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 18: 82 (1933) = Bidens odorata Cav.

*Bidens pallida Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 389 (1907) = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

Bidens pectinata Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (186566), nom. nud. = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens pedunculata Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Secc. 2, Bot. 8: 231 (1891) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd.

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] a bipinnatisecta Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Sp. 3(3): 137 (1898) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd.

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] d cochabambensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. [var. cochabambensis (Kuntze) Sherff]

*Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] g soratensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd.

Bidens peucedanifolius (Wedd.) Kuntze [var.] b tiraquensis Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 137 (1898) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. [var. tiraqunsis (Kuntze) Sherff]

*Bidens pilosa L., Sp. Pl. : 832 (1753). Type: Habitat in America. 0. Lectotype (selected by DArcy in Woodson & Schery, 1975: 1178): Herb. Linn. No. 975.8 (LINN).

Coreopsis leucanthema L., Cent. I Pl.: 29 (1755). Type: Habitat in America. Miller. Lectotype (selected by Ballard, 1986: 1464): Herb. Linn. 1026.5, LINN; isolectotype: BM.

Coreopsis leucantha L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1282 (1763), orth var., type as above.

Bidens hispida Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 186 (1818). Type: Crescit locis siccis, prope La Venta de Sanchorquiz, alt. 760 hex. (Prov. Venezuel.) 0. Floret Januario. [Humboldt & Bonpland ''mss. n. 698. Caracas; B-W: Caracas. Jan. 1800 __?__ 698. in Siccis La Venta. Holotype: P-Bonpl.; isotype: B-W.

Bidens reflexa Link, Enum. Pl. 2: 306 (1822). Type: Hab. in Mexico K. Holotype: B.

Bidens adhaerescens Vell., Fl. Flum.: 348 (1825)[7 Sept. - 28 Nov. 1829]; Fl. Flum. Icones 8: tab. 88 (1831). Type: Habitat et frequenter, et ubique.

Bidens decussata Pav. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836), nom. nud. pro syn. based on B. hispida.

Bidens californica DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836). Type: in Californi legit cl. Douglas [56]. ... (v.s. comm. ab hon. soc. hortic. Londin.). Holotype: G-DC; isotype: K (mounted with what is probably a Coulter collection).

Bidens hirsuta Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., ser. 2, 7: 369 (1841). Type: [Hawaii:] 'Hab. In Atooi. Holotype: GH.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. in Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Canaries 3(2): 242 (1844), based on Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch.Bip. in Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Canaries 3(2): 242 (1844), based on Coreopsis leucantha L./Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd.

Bidens leucantha L. f. discoidea (Sch.Bip.) Krauss, Beitr. Fl. Cap. Natal. : 77 (1846).

*Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) J. A. Schmidt, Beitr. Fl. Cap. Verdischer Ins. : 197 (1852), comb. illegit.

Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd. var. pilosa (L.) Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub. : 155 (1866).

Kerneria pilosa (L.) Lowe, Manual Fl. Madeira 1: 474 (1868).

Kerneria pilosa (L.) Lowe var. discoidea (Sch.Bip.) Lowe, Manual Fl. Madeira 1: 474 (1868).

Kerneria pilosa (L.) Lowe var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) Lowe, Manual Fl. Madeira 1: 474 (1868).

Bidens pilosa L. var. leucantha (L.) Kuntze [f.] 1. subsimplicifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. pl. 1: 322 (1891). Type: Portorico. Hongkong. [Puerto Rico. Caguay, 8 Mar 1874, Kuntze s.n. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 328]

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 2. ternata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891). Type: Gran Canaria. Wetter & Zanoni (1985) noted that no material had been located in NY.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 3. pinnata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891). Type: Colon. Macao. Turong. [China. Macao, 7 Feb 1875, Kuntze 3541. Vietnam. Turong [Da Nang], Feb 1875, Kuntze 3791. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 328]

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 4. subbiternata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891). Type: St. Thomas. Birma. [Burma. Maulmein, 18 Oct 1875, Kuntze 6248. Virgin Islands. St. Thomas, 26 Feb 1874, Kuntze 213. according to Wetter & Zanoni, 1985: 328]

Bidens pilosa L. subvar. discoidea (Sch.Bip.) Pit. in Pit. & Proust, Iles Canaries : 226 (1908).

*Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 387 (1925).

Widespread in the USA, Central and South America, south to Argentina and Chile. Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Note: Doubtless more detailed studies would somewhat increase the synonymy of B. pilosa, but the synonymy given above covers a broad concept of the species. Ballard (1986) restricted the species to plants with rays greatly reduced or lacking.

Amor de viejo, Amor seco, Espina de erizo, Espino negra, Picn, Saetilla, Seltilla (Freire et al., 2006).

*Bidens pilosa L. var. alausensis (Kunth) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81(1): 35 (1926) = Bidens odorata Cav.

*Bidens pilosa L. var. alausensis (Kunth) Sherff f. scandicina (Kunth) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 81(1): 36 (1926) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens pilosa L. var. bimucronata (Turcz.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symbol. Ant. 7: 138 (1911) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens pilosa L. var. brachycarpa (DC.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Smbol. Ant. 7: 138 (1911) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens pilosa L. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80: 377 (1925) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens pilosa L. var. calcicola (Greenm.) Sherff f. dissecta Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 379 (1925) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. in Webb. & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Canaries 3(2): 242 (1844) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 2. ternata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. subvar. discoidea (Sch.Bip.) Pit. in Pit. & Proust, Iles Canaries : 226 (1908) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 3. pinnata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. var. discoidea Sch.Bip. [f.] 4. subbiternata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens pilosa L. f. hirsutior (C. B. Clarke) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens pilosa L. var. leucantha (L.) Kuntze [f.] 1. subsimplicifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. pl. 1: 322 (1891) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens platensis Manganaro, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 24: 230 (1913) = Bidens subalternans DC.

*Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 387 (1925) = Bidens pilosa L.

*Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (Sch.Bip.) J. A. Schmidt, Beitr. Fl. Cap. Verdischer Ins. : 197 (1852), comb. illegit. = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens procumbens Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 182 (1818) = Bidens striplinervia Kunth

*Bidens pseudocosmos Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 76(2): 151 (1923). Type: Dr Otto Buchtien 815, at altitude of 3300 m., below Obraje, souteast of La Paz, Bolivia, May 10, 1919 (type, 1st and 2nd sheet, in Herb. Field Mus.). Holotype: F; isotypes: S, US.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Peru.

Bidens pulcherrimus Sch.Bip., Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 54, sub Bidens (Cosmos) pulcherrimus, see also Cosmos (Bidens) pulcherrimus Sch.Bip.) = Cosmos peucedanifolius Wedd. [var. tiraquensis (Kuntze) Sherff]

Bidens pusilla Sherff, Sida 1(6): 369 (1964) = Bidens andicola Kunth

Bidens quadrangularis DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836) = Bidens subalternans DC.

Bidens ramosissima Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 491 (1913) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens reflexa Link, Enum. Pl. 2: 306 (1822) = Bidens pilosa L.

Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 3: 360 (1839).

Coreopsis reptans L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1228 (1759). Type: '''Habitat in America. Lectotype (selected by Moore in Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jamaica 7: 252, 1936): Browne, Herb. Linn. No. 1026.13 (LINN).

Coreopsis viminea P. Browne ex Sm., Spic. Bot., fasc. 2: 20, pl. 22 (179192), nom. nud.

Coreopsis scandens Sm., Spic. Bot., fasc. 2: 20 (179192), nom. nud.

Coreopsis variifolia Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allert. : 206 (1796), nom. illeg.

*Bidens squarrosa Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 187 (1818). Type: Crescit inter Caracas et montem Buenavist, alt. 500 hex. K ? Floret Januario. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens tereticaulis DC., Prodr. 5: 598 (1836). Types: '' in Mexico prope Tantoyuca legit Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 2150 et 2148); eadem ni fallor adest ex Brasiliae prov. Sancti-Pauli in herb. Mus. Par. (h. imp. Bras. n. 412). B. squarrosa Less. in linnaea 1830. p. 156 ( sylvis Jalapensibus orta) excl. utroq. Kunthii syn. ... (v.s.). Syntypes: Berlandier 2148, G-DC; Berlandier 2150, G-DC ' 2; h. imp. Bras. 412, P. There is also a numbered Gaudichaud collection in G-DC (Gaudichaud 677).

Bidens coreopsidis DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836). Type/s: in Jamaic (Bert.!) inter sepes et dumeta (Sloan.). Coreopsis chrysantha Spreng.! syst. 3. p. 614 non Linn. Sloan. hist. 1. p. 261. t. 154. f. 2 et 3. ... (v.s. comm. cl. Bert.). The Bertero s.n. material is in G-DC.

Bidens coreopsidis var. reptans (L.) DC., Prodr. 5: 599 (1836).

Coreopsis trifoliata Bertol., Fl. Guatimal. : 36 (1840); originally in Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bononiensis 4: 436 (1840). Type: Habitat in Vulcano dacqua. Frut? Holotype: BOLO (if not destroyed).

Bidens rubifolia Kunth var. coreopsidis (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884).

Bidens antiguensis Coult., Bot. Gaz. 16(4): 100 (1891). Types: Antigua, Depart. Zacatepequez, alt. 5000 feet, April, 1890 (J. D[onnell]. S[mith]. 2354); San Luis, Depart. Escuintla, March, 1890 (J. D[onnell]. S[mith]. 2375). Syntypes: GH.

Coreopsis scandens Sess & Moc., Fl. Mex., ed. 2 : 194 (1894), p.p.

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. sordida Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 39: 115 (1903). Types: Costa Rica. Thal des rio Segando, Hoffmann, no. 383 (hb. Gr.); for ts de la Mala Via au Copey, April, 1898, Ad. Tonduz, no. 12,284 (hb. Gr., and hb. Inst. Phys.-Goeg. Cost. Ri.). Syntypes: GH.

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. indivisa B. L. Rob., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 31: 270 (1904). Type: Nicaragua: Masaya, Department of Masaya, 27 January, 1903, C. F. Baker, no. 2214. Holotype: ?POM; isotype: GH.

Bidens coreopsidis DC. var. procumbens Donn. Sm., Bot. Gaz. 42(4): 299 (1906). Type: Prope Secanquim, Depart. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, alt. 550m, Jan. 1905, Maxon et Hay (n. 3162). Holotype: ?GH.

Bidens urbanii Greenm., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2(6): 271 (1907). Type: Porto Rico. On slopes of Mt. Montoso, near Miricao, 23 November, 1884. Sintenis, no. 387. (hb. Field Mus. Catalogue No. 79397), type. Holotype: F; isotype: K.

Coreopsis caracasana Willd. ex O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 140 (1911), nom. nud.

Bidens reptans L. var. bipartita O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 141 (1911). Types: Hab. in Portorico prope Maricao in declivibus montis Montoso m. Nov. fl.: Sintenis n. 387b, prope Cayey in fruticetis ad Quebrada arriba m. Sept. fl. et fr.: idem n. 2788. Syntypes: ?B; isosyntype: Sintenis 387b, K.

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. antiguensis (Coult.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 142 (1911).

Bidens mexicana Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 491 (1913). Type: Dr. Edward Palmer 95, in or near Acapulco, Mexico, October 1894 to March 1895 (type, with the flowering and the fruiting specimen on two separate sheets, in Herb. Univ. Chicago). Holotype: F the two sheets are given the following IRNs 338897 (Object number 265350) & 366835.; isotypes GH, K.

Bidens brittonii Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 56(6): 492 (1913). Type: C. Wright 314 pro parte, eastern Cuba, 1856-1857 (type in Gray Herb.). Holotype: GH.

Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru.

Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don var. bipartita O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 141 (1911) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens (Heterospermum) rhombifolium Sch.Bip., Bonplandia 4(4): 54 (1856), nom. nud. (based on Lechler 1576) = Heterosperma ovatifolium Cav.

Bidens rosea Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald: 308 (1856), nom. illegit. based on Cosmos pilosus Kunth = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens rosea Sch.Bip. var. calcicola Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 41: 264 (1905) = Bidens odorata Cav.

*Bidens rubifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 186 (1818). Type: [Ecuador:] Crescit in Regno Quitensi ? K aut L Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Kerneria rubifolia (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 399 (1822).

Bidens floribunda Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 187 (1818). Type: Crescit in radicibus montis Javirac, prope urbem Quiti, alt. 1500 hex. K ? Fructificat Februario. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens rubifolia Kunth var. floribunda (Kunth) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 142 (1911).

Bidens rugulosa Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 184 (1851). Type: [Ecuador:] In volcano Pasto. Jameson coll. Quito. n. 497. Robinson (2006: 67) noted holotype PZV, which is highly unlikely see explanation under Bidens bimucornata, a synonym of B. odorata Cav.. It is certain that there is type material in BM, G, G-DC, FI, K 2.

?Bolivia (?), Colombia, Ecuador, ?Peru, Venezuela.

Bidens rubifolia Kunth var. coreopsidis (DC.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens rubifolia Kunth var. b silvatica [as sylvaticus] Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884) = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

Bidens scandens L., Sp. Pl. : 833 (1753) = Salmea scandens (L.) DC.

Bidens scandicina Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818) = Bidens odorata Cav.

*Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 307 (1835). Type: Mart: hb: Specim: mancum communicatum a cl: Martio ex plantis lectis in Brasilia ... Holotype: TO.

Coreopsis brasiliensis Colla, Herb. Pedem. 3: 479 (1834)[1835?]. Type: Missa sine nomine specifico a cl: Martio et Brasil: Terra Nova lecta, mihi videtur differre a ceteris stirpibus, ... Holotype: TO.

Bidens (Psilocarpaea) speciosa Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 126 (1845). Types: [Brazil:] Hab. Woods, Organ Mountains, at an elevation of about 3000 feet. Fl. March and April. [Gardner] 511; My n. 510, also from the Organ Mountains, is a tomentose variety of this species. Syntypes: K.

Bidens multiserrata Sch.Bip., Linnaea 30: 181 (1859-60), nom. nud.

Bidens rubifolia Kunth var. b sylvatica [as sylvaticus] Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884). Type: ... in Brasilia, loco non adnotato: Riedel! Type material: K. Note: There are two duplicates determined by Baker in K. Robinson (2006: 68) suggested the holotype was in LE, which is unlikely since that should have the full locality data on the sheet (although it is most probable that the top set of the Riedel material is in the University!), with duplicates in GH and P.

Bidens sylvaticus Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn.

*Bidens pallida Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 4(14): 389 (1907). Type: [Bolivia:] Climbing 5 to 10 feet over hedges by the roadside; abundant. Flowers yellow. Coripata, Yungas, April 25, 1899. ([Bang] No. 2152.) Holotype: NY; isotype: US.

Bidens longipetiolata Rusby, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8(No. 28): 131 (1912). Type: [Bolivia:] Six feet high. Mychariapa, 3800 ft. alt., Apr. 9, 1902 ([R.S. Williams] No. 194). Holotype: NY.

Bolivia (La Paz), Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.

*?Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla var. patula (Gardner) Sherff, Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 16: 197 (1937).

Bidens serrata Pav. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 597 (1836) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens (Psilocarpaea) speciosa Gardner, London J. Bot. 4: 126 (1845) = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

*Bidens squarrosa Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4 (ed. folio): 187 (1818) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens striata Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., 3: pl. 237 (1829) = Bidens odorata Cav.

Bidens subalternans DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836). Type: [Brazil:] in locis cultis circa Bahiam legit cl. Slazmann [48]. ,,, (v.s. comm. cl. Salzmann.). Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens quadrangularis DC., Prodr. 5: 600 (1836). Type: [Brazil:] '? circa Rio-de-Janeiro legit cl. Ponson. ... (v.s. comm. cl. inv.) Holotype: G-DC.

Bidens platensis Manganaro, Anal. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 24: 230 (1913). Type: not cited. Robinson (2006: 71) cited 'Argentina, Buenos Aires, near La Plata, Manganaro s.n. (LP).

Bidens subalternans DC. [var.] simulans Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 291 (1929). Type: [P. Jrgensen] 1785, growing erect, 1 m. high, [Department of Andalgal , Province of Catamarca, Argentina,] Oct. 1, 1917. Holotype: US; isotype: GH.

Bidens subalternans DC. [var.] unipinnata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 292 (1929). Type: Dr. Emil Hassler 11558, in the region of Lake Ypacaray, central Paraguay, February, 1913. Holotype: GH.

Argentina, Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Paraguay.

Amor de viejo, Amor seco, Espina de erizo, Pasto de los gringos, Setilla (Freire et al., 2006).

Bidens subalternans DC. [var.] simulans Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 291 (1929) = Bidens subalternans DC.

Bidens subalternans DC. [var.] unipinnata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 292 (1929) = Bidens subalternans DC.

Bidens sulphureus (Cav.) Sch.Bip. in Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald : 308 (1857) = Cosmos sulphureus Cav.

Bidens sylvaticus Sch.Bip. ex Baker in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(3): 245 (1884), nom. nud. pro syn. = Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

Bidens tereticaulis DC., Prodr. 5: 598 (1836) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. antiguensis (Coult.) O. E. Schulz in Urb., Symb. Antill. 7: 142 (1911) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. indivisa B. L. Rob., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 31: 270 (1904) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens tereticaulis DC. var. sordida Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 39: 115 (1903) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

*Bidens tener O. E. Schulz var. tetracera Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 293 (1929). Type: Dr. Otto Buchtien 4182, at altitude of 1300 meters, Milluguaya, North Yungas, Bolivia, December, 1917. Holotype: US. A Pittier (10222) paratype from Venzuela was also cited by Sherff (1929). Cited by Foster (1958: 205) as the variety of Bidens tenera, Bidens tenera is not in Index Kewensis, nor IPNI. This variety, under Bidens tenera [sic!] was synonymized by Sherff (1937: 408) under Bidens ternera var. b paucidentata (O. E. Schulz) Sherff, along with Bidens ekmanii O. E. Schulz and B. ekmanii O. E. Schulz var. paucidentata O. E. Schulz, and cited as being from Cuba and Bolivia (as well as Venezuela). Aristeguieta (1964: 651) noted only that the species was distributed from Costa Rica to Brazil.

Bidens triplivernia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 182 (1818). Type: Crescit prope San Augustin de Las Cuevas et urbem Mexici, alt. 1170 hex. K Floret Majo. In B-W, 109/8 is labelled Bidens triplinervis. Mexico, 109/9 is labelled Bidens hirtella, 109/10 is labelled Bidens procumbens, 109/11 is labelled Bidens procumbens varietas?

Bidens hirtella Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 182 (1818). Type: Crescit cum precedente. ? K [B. triplinervia - YT'Crescit prope San Augustin de Las Cuevas et urbem Mexici, alt. 1170 hex. K Floret Majo.] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens procumbens Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 182 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Xalapa Mexicanorum ? K. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens crithmifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 183 (1818). Type: Crescit prope urbem Quito, alt. 1500 hex. K ?. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens delphinifolia Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 183 (1818). Type: Crescit cum prcedente ? 0? [B. crithmifolia '- q.v.] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

*Bidens humilis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth in Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 184 (1818). Type: Crescit in radicibus montis Cotopaxi, prope Mulalo, alt. 1600 hex. K? Floret Majo. [Humboldt & Bonpland Bonpl. mss. n. 3126] Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Bidens serrata Pav. ex DC., Prodr. 5: 597 (1836). Type: in Peruvi. Coreopsis LH r.! mss. ... (v.s. sine fl. in h. LHr.! et flor. descr. ex LH r. mss.). Holotype: ?NEU or ?G-DC. De Candolle noted that material in h. LHr. was without capitula, obtaining his description of the capitula from L''Hritiers manuscript. The duplicate material in G-DC is ''LHritier 977, 1788 and is sterile suggesting L''Hritier made his notes in the field.

Bidens glaberrima DC., Prodr. 5: 601 (1836). Type: '- in Amer. calidiore legit cl. Ne ex h. Thibaud, sed locus propr. ign. ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC. Note: Thibaud''s herbarium is in G-DC. Duplicates of this Ne collection may well be in MA.

Bidens artemisiifolia Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 49 (1843). Type: Crescit in montibus calcareis Peruviae subandinae ad Cassapi.'' Holotype: W.

Bidens mollis Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 49 (1843). Type: Crescit cum praecedente., q.v. Bidens artemisiifolia Poepp.

Bidens consolidifolia Turcz., Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 24(1): 185 (1851). Type: [Ecuador:] Quito. Jameson coll. n. 693. Holotype: ?KW; isotype: [Envirrons of Quito. Very Common.] K.

Bidens humilis Kunth [var.] b macrantha Wedd., Chloris Andina 1: 69 (1856). Types: [Ecuador:] rochers du mont Pichincha!, h. 3952 m. (Jameson, exsicc. (1856), no. 55) Prou: sur les rocher, dans le voisinage du lac de Titicaca, pr s du village de Moho, h. 3900 m. (Wedd.) Syntypes: P.

Bidens humilis Kunth var. major Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 52).

Bidens pectinata Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 528 (Feb. 1866), nom. nud. (based on Mandon 50).

*Bidens macrantha Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 19([1]): 186 (1874); Pl. Lorentz. : (1874). Types: Tucuman, copiose in pascuis alpinis pr. Cienega. Catamarca, in convalle excelsa Granadillas pr. Yakutula. Syntypes: Lorentz 152, 540, GOET.

Bidens decomposita Wall. ex DC. [var.] b hirsutior C. B. Clarke, Comp. Ind. : 141 (1876). Type: Hab. In montibus Nilgiri ad 7,500 ped. alt. mense Martio florens. Forsan bona species : sed unicum exemplum legi. [Clarke]

Bidens humilis Kunth var. tenuifolia Sch.Bip. ex Griseb., Abh. Knigl. Ges. Wiss. G ttingen 24(1): 108 (March-April 1879); Symb. Fl. Argent. : 198 (1879). Type: [Argentina] C. Holotype: GOET. Note: Robinson (2006: 72) suggested that this name was based on two Mandon collections, 52 and 46 (part), which are in P However, it is quite clear that Grisebach did not cite these collections in the protologue.

Bidens pedunculatus [sic!] Phil., Anales Mus. Nac. Chile, Secc. 2, Bot. 8: 49 (1891). Type: [Chile:] Trado de Sibaya in provincia Tarapac advecta. Holotype: SGO (66333). Note: Robinson (2006: 72) suggested that the holotype, Philippi 217 was in B, with a fragment in K?. Of this date this is unlikely since all Berlin Compositae material was most probably destroyed. Philippis protologue made no mention of the collection being in B.

Bidens grandiflora Balbis [var.] a humilis (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(3): 136 (1898).

Bidens pilosa L. f. hirsutior (C. B. Clarke) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 322 (1891).

Bidens attenuata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 61(6): 495 (1916). Type: Ghiesbrecht, Chiapas, Mexico (type in Herb. Gray). Holotype: GH; isotypes: GH, P.

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 383 (1925).

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. mollis (Poepp.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 384 (1925).

Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. nematoidea Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 287 (1929). Type: H. L. Viereck 5, Cerro Quemado, Santa Marta, Colombia, Dec. 17, 1922. Holotype: US.

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff f. octoradiata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 203 (1931). Type: Pflanz 406, alt. 3550 m., schist slope, Chullo, Palca, La Paz, Bolivia, Mar. 13, 1910. Holotype: B.

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz), Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela.

Note: Robinson (2006: 7475) divided the species into var. triplinervia and var. macrantha but did not provide a breakdown of their distribution. The name Bidens affinis Klotzsch & Otto, Linnaea 15: 2 (1841); Literatur-Bericht : 83 (1841) is referred to by Sherff (1937: 506) as a synonym. However, there is no description of the species on p. 2 by Klotzsch & Otto, and the only reference on p. 83 (of Index Seminum in horto botanico Berolinensi 1840 collectorum (Link Director). 4.) in the Literatur Bericht is to Bidens affinis Kl. et O., spec. nova e Cuba. Semina misit E. Otto, B. grandiflorae affinis., which does not consitute valid publication.

Vernacular name/s: Quilchamali v. Lasuma (Grisebach, 1879: 198).

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 383 (1925) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff f. octoradiata Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 92: 203 (1931) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

*Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. mollis (Poepp.) Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 80(4): 384 (1925) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens triplinervia Kunth var. nematoides Sherff, Bot. Gaz. 88(3): 287 (1916) = Bidens triplinervia Kunth

Bidens urbanii Greenm., Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. 2: 271 (1907) = Bidens reptans (L.) G. Don

Bidens verticillata L., Sp. Pl. : 833 (1753) = Trichospira verticillata (L.) S. F. Blake

Bigelowia mandonii B. D. Jacks., Index Kewensis 1(1): 302 (1895), nom. nud. (see note under Llerasia soratensis) = Llerasia soratensis (S. F. Blake) Cuatrec.