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Acmella Rich., Syn. Pl. 2: 472 (1807).

Ceratocephalus Burm. ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891), nom. illegit. superfl., pro Spilanthes Jacq. pp. & Acmella Rich. p.p.

Athronia Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 32 (1790), nom. illeg. rej.

Colobogyne Gagnep., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 4: 15 (1920). Type: Colobogyne langbianensis Gagnep. = Acmella calva (DC.) R. K. Jansen

Lectotype (original lectotypification superseded by the selection of Robinson (2006: 17)): Anthemis repens Walter = Acmella repens (Walter) Rich. in Pers. [In the origial lectotypification (Jansen, 1985: 19) Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R. K. Jansen was chosen but this was not based on one of the elements in the original publication and proved to be a species of Heliopsis Pers. Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal]

References

Moore, A. H. (1907). Revision of the genus Spilanthes. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 521569.

Moore, A. H. (1911). Einige neue Beitrge zur Kenntnis der Gattung Spilanthes. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45(4): 426427.

Diaz-Piedrahita, S. (1990). Acerca de la validez de dos nombres Aster ceas Colombianas y de su correcta tipificacin. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 17: 645648.

Jansen, R. K. (1985). The systematics of Acmella (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 1115.

Robinson, H. (2006): Acmella. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador, No. 77(1): 190(6). Compositae-Heliantheae, Part 1: Introduction, genera A---L. Botanical Institute, Gteborg University, G teborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 1728.

Acmella brachyglossa Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 50: 258 (1827). Type: Nous avons fait cette description sur un chantillon sec, recueilli par M. Poiteau dans la Guiane fran aise, et qui se trouve dans lherbier de M. Gay. Holotype: P (according to Jansen, 1985: 73); isotype: G. [Note: Gays herbarium is in fact in K, although I have been unable to find this specimen; it is quite possible that this material is mounted with another collection and housed under another taxon, and remains to be discovered!]

Spilanthes caespitosa DC., Prodr. 5: 622 (1836). Type: K in Brasiliae prov. Minarum-Generalium ad Mariannam legit cl. Vauthier (pl. exs. n. 308!). ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC; isotypes: G, GH.

Spilanthes arrayana Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 408 (1848). Type: [Brazil:] Hab. Near Villa de Arrayas, Province of Goyaz. March, 1840. [Gardner] 3866. Types: BM, CGE, E, F, G, K 2, NY 3 (260000, 260001, 260002), P, W.

Ceratocephalus caespitosa (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Spilanthes eggersii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 608 (1901). Type: Ecuador: crescit prope Hacienda El Recreo in prov. Manabi (Eggers n. 14931, 4. Aug. 1893). Holotype: B; isotypes: K, W.

Spilanthes limonica A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 541 (1907). Type: Cuba: Santa Clara: C. G. Pringle, 75, Limones (in Herb. Gray) (specimena cum eodem lecta in Herb. Hort. Bot. Mo, Hort. Bot. Novebr., Mus. Hist. Nat. Field). Holotype: GH; isotypes: BAF, BR, F, G, MEL, MEXU, MO, NY, PH, US.

*Spilanthes ocymifolia (Lam.) A. H. Moore f. radiifera A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 533 (1907). Type: Colombia: Magdalena: H. H. Smith, 513, Santa Marta (in Herb. Hort. Bot. Novebor.) (specimina cum eodem lecta in Herbb. Gray., Mus. Hort. Bot. Mo., Mus. Hist. Nat. Field). Holotype: NY (260008); isotypes: BM, BR, E, F, G, GH, LE, LL, MO, MPU, PH, RSA, S, TEX, U, UC, USF, W.

Bolivia (Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guayana, Martinique, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela. Thailand.

Acmella brasiliensis Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 592 (1826), nom. illeg. superfl. = Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski

Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Spilanthes ciliata Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 163 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Chipo et Santa Fe de Bogota, alt. 1360 hex. Floret Augusto. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Spilanthes fimbriata Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 163 (1818). Type: [Colombia:] Crescit in Andibus Novo-Granatensium prope Ybague et Passo del Machin, alt. 700 1050 hex. Floret Septembri. [Humboldt & Bonpland mss. n. 1823] Holotype: P-Bonpl; isotype: P.

Acmella fimbriata (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Spilanthes poeppigii DC., Prodr. 5: 622 (1836). Type: in Peruvi legit cl. Poeppig. (pl. exs. n. 32. diar. n. 1205!). ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC; isotype: BM, G, W.

Spilanthes melampodioides Gardner, London J. Bot. 7: 407 (1848). Type: [Brazil:] YT'[Gardner] 2223. ... Hab. Moist places near the city of Oeiras, Province of Piauhy. April, 1839. Jansen cited the material in BM as holotype, mentioning the specimen in OXF as isotype. There are also two types in K.

Ceratocephalus ciliatus (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus fimbriatus (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus poeppigii (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Spilanthes popayanensis Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28(5): 610 (1901). Type: Columbia: crescit locis humidis altiplaniciei popayanensis, alt. s. m. 16002000 m, mense Majo florens (L.[ehmann] n. 8010, Majo 1887). Holotype: B; isotype: K, US (fragment).

Argentina, Bolivia (Ben, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela. Introduced into Panama and S Asia (The Celebes, India, Thailand, Sumatra).

Acmella debilis (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822) = Acmella radicans (Jacq.) R. K. Jansen var. debilis (Kunth) R. K. Jansen

Acmella fimbriata (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822) = Acmella ciliata (Kunth) Cass.

Acmella hirta Lag., Gen. Sp. Pl. Nov. 31, n. 383 (1816) = Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.

Acmella occidentalis Willd. ex Rich. in Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 473 (1807), nom. nud. = Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal

Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R. K. Jansen, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 8: 30 (1985) = Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal

Acmella radicans (Jacq.) R. K. Jansen var. debilis (Kunth) R. K. Jansen, Syst. Bot. Mongr. 8: 72 (1985).

Spilanthes debilis Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 165 (1818). Type: Crescit ad ripam fluvii Orinoci. ' Floret Majo. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Spilanthes tenella Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 165 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Caracas, alt. 500 hex. Floret Januario. Holotype: P-Bonpl.

Acmella debilis (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Acmella tenella (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Spilanthes mandonii Sch.Bip., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 12: 79 (1865); Linnaea 34(5): 529 (Feb 1866). Type: [Bolivia:] [Mandon 63]. Note: since Schultz Bipontinus merely mentioned breviradiata affinis Sp. leucanthae HBK. it is debatable if this is enough of a Latin diagnosis to warrant valid publication. [isotypes: NY (260006), S.]

Ceratocephalus debilis (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus tenellus (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Bolivia (La Paz), Colombia, Peru, Hispaniola, Lesser Antilles, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Acmella repens (Walter) Rich. in Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 131 (1807).

Anthemis repens Walter, Fl. Carol. : 211 (1788). Type: not stated. Neotype (selected by Jansen, 1985: 34): U.S.A. Texas: Chambers Co., 0.5 mi W of Exit 812 (jct Texas 61 on rte to Hankamer) along I-10E, 10 Jun 1979, Jansen & Harriman 665, OS; isoneotypes: F, MO, NY, OSH, TEX, US.

Spilanthes repens (Walter) Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 131 (1803).

Spilanthes mutisii Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 164 (1818). Type: Crescit prope Santa Fe de Bogota, alt. 1400 hex. 0 ? Robinson (2006: 25) suggested that this was based on a Mutis collection in LINN (citing holotype LINN 974-7).

Acmella occidentalis Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 171 (1818), non (Willd.) Rich. in Pers. (1807)(= Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal). Type: [USA:] Hab. On the banks of the Missisippi near New Orleans. Holotype: BM; isotype: PH.

Acmella mutisii (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Spilanthes beccabunga DC., Prodr. 5: 622 (1836). Types: K in Mexico in valle Mexici et Toluccae legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 720 et 1160!).[31 Aug. 1827] ... (v.s.) Syntypes: G-DC. Lectotype (selected by Jansen, 1985: 31): Berlandier 720 G-DC; isolectotypes: BM, F, G, GH, LE, OXF, P.

Spilanthes subhirsuta DC., Prodr. 5: 622 (1836). Type: K in Mexico circa Tampico de Tamaulipas legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 149!).[14 Feb. 1827] ... (v.s.) Holotype: G-DC; isotypes: F, G, GH, P.

Acmella nuttaliana Raf., New Fl. 1: 52 (1836), nom. illegit. superfl.

Spilanthes nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 356 (1842), nom. illegit. superfl.

Spilanthes diffusa Poepp., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 3: 50 (1843). Type: Crescit cum praecedente. [q.v. Spilanthes sessilis Crescit in cultis Peruviae orientalis ad Cuchero.] Holotype: W; isotype: W.

Spilanthes orizabensis Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Leopoldina 23: 145 (1887). Type: Mexico, Antigua, Paso Juana, leg. Liebmann No. 599. Herb. Hort. Bot. Hafn. Mirador, leg. Sartorius, Herb. Klatt. Lectotype (selected by Jansen, 1985: 31): Sartorius s.n. GH; isolectotypes: GH, MEL.

Spilanthes sartorii Sch.Bip. ex Klatt, Leopoldina 23: 145 (1887), nom. nud. pro syn.

Spilanthes lateraliflora Klatt, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 8: 43 (1887). Type: Guatemala; in humidiusculis pr. Coban Alta Paz, alt. 1300 m ([Lehmann] n. 1319). Apr. 1882. Holotype: GH; isotypes: G, K, US.

Spilanthes lehmanniana Klatt, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 8: 43 (1887). Type: Columbia; Cauca in fruticetis ad Purace, alt. 2650 m ([Lehmann] n. 3487). Mart. 1884. Holotype: GH; isotypes: G, K, US.

Ceratocephalus beccabunga (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus americanus (L.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocehpalus diffusus (Poepp.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus repens (Walter) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus subhirsutus (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Spilanthes beccabunga DC. var. parvula B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 27: 176 (1892). Type: Wet soil, Flora de Maria, State of Mexico, August, 1890 ([Pringle] n. 3643). Holotype: GH.

Spilanthes disciformis B. L. Rob., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 27: 176 (1893). Type: Wet meadows, near Guadalajara, May 1890 ([C. G. Pringle] n. 3489). Holotype: GH; isotype: F.

Spilanthes americana (L.f.) Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29(1): 42 (1900*).[*Note: See Reference section concerning problem with date of publication]

Spilanthes disciformis B. L. Rob. var. phaneractis Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 39: 108 (1903). Type: Mexico. State of Michoacan: swamps, Zamora, altitude 1540 m., 1901, and 24 July, 1902, C. G. Pringle nos. 9539, 8637. Syntypes: GH. Isosyntype: Pringle 8637, K.

Spilanthes ciliata Kunth var. diffusa (Poepp.) A.H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 539 (1907).

Spilanthes americana (L.f.) Hieron. var. repens (Walter) A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 547 (1907).

Spilanthes cocuyensis Cuatrec., Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 9: 247 (1954). Type: Colombia, Dept. Boyac: Valle del Cocuy, vertientes del lado SE, 31003750 m. alt., 8-IX-1938 colect. J. Cuatrecasas 1254-'. Holotype: F.

Robinson (2006) cited a wide distribution, viz. S.E. USA, Mexico, Central America, S. America south to Bolivia and Paraguay., clearly much broader than the North American and Mexican distribution indicated by Jansen (1985: 35), in large part accounted for by the species concept see note below. Bolivia (Santa Cruz).

Note: With Acmella oppositifolia (Lam.) R. K. Jansen having been shown to apply to Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal I have followed Robinson (2006) in a broad concept, without subspecies, of the species.

Acmella spilanthoides Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 329 (1822), nom. nud. = Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski

Acmella tenella (Kunth) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822) = Acmella radicans (Jacq.) R. K. Jansen var. debilis (Kunth) R. K. Jansen

Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 24: 331 (1822).

Spilanthes uliginosa Sw., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. Prodr. : 110 (1788). Type: Sloane. h. 1. 257/ Jamaica. 0. Holotype: (according to Jansen, 1985: 55) Swartz, s.n. BM; ?isotype: S.

Jaegeria uliginosa (Sw.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 3: 590 (1826).

Spilanthes lundii DC., Prodr. 5: 622 (1836). Type: [Brazil:] K? ad rivulos circa Rio-Janeiro legit cl. Lund. [250] ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC.

Spilanthes salzmannii DC., Prodr. 5: 623 (1836). Type: [Brazil:] ? in pludosis circa Bahiam Brasiliae legit cl. Salzmann. [45] ... (v.s.). Holotype: G-DC; isotype: K.

Spilanthes acmella L. var. b uliginosa (Sw.) Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(3): 233 (1884).

Ceratocephalus acmella (L.) Kuntze var. uliginosa (Sw.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891).

Ceratocephalus acmella (L.) Kuntze var. depauperata Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 326 (1891). Type: Trinidad. NB. According to Wetter & Zanoni (1985) specimen not yet found in NY.

Spilanthes iabadicensis A. H. Moore, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 42(No. 20): 542 (1907). Type: Java: J. E. Teijsmann, ex horto bogoriensi Javae misit, 1869. Holotype: GH.

Spilanthes charitopis A. H. Moore, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45(4): 427 (1911). Type: Brasilien: (W. G. Walpers. Herb. Berlin). Holotype: B.

Coreopsis acmella (L.) E. H. L. Krause var. uliginosa (Sw.) K.Krause, Beih. Bot. Centrabl. 32: 340 (1914).

Spilanthes uliginosa Sw. var. discoidea Aristeg., Fl. Venez. 10: 616 (1964). Type: San Juan de Los Morros, Edo. Gurico, Venezuela (H. Pittier 10152, enero 1922). Holotype: ?VEN; isotype: NY.

Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil, Guyana, Honduras, Panama, Venezuela, West India (Antigua, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Tobago), Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Liberia, Tanzania), Indonesia and Malaysia.

Addisonia boliviana Rusby, Descr. New Sp. S. Amer. Pl. : 147 (1920) = Helogyne straminea (DC.) B. L. Rob.

Addisonia virgata Rusby, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 20: 432, t. 169. (1893) = Helogyne virgata (Rusby) B. L. Rob.

Adenospermum tuberculatum Hook. & Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3(No. 22): 318 (1841) = Chrysanthellum indicum DC. ssp. afroamericanum B. L. Turner

Lavenia Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. : 112 (1788). Lectotype: Lavenia erecta Sw. = Adenostemma lavenia (L.) Kuntze