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Acanthospermum Schrank, Pl. Rar. Horti Acad. Monac. 2: 53 (1819)[Apr.ÐMay 1820], nom. cons.

Centrospermum Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 212 (1818). Type: Centrospermum xanthioides Kunth, nom. illegit. = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Orcya Vell., Fl. Flum. : 344 (1825)[7 Sept. - 28 Nov. 1829]. Type: Orcya adhaerescens Vell. = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Echinodium Poir. ex Cass., Dict. Sci. Nat. 59: 235 (1829), nom. nud. pro syn., non Juratzka (1866).

Type: Acanthospermum brasilum Schrank = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

References

Blake, S. F. (1921). Revision of the genus Acanthospermum. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 20: 383Ð392.

Pruski, J. F. (1997). (1324) Proposal to conserve the name Acanthospermum against Centrospermum (Compositae, Heliantheae). TAXON 46(4): 805Ð806.

Stuessy, T. F. (1970). The genus Acanthospermum (CompositaeÐHeliantheaeÐMelampodinae): taxonomic changes and generic affinities. Rhodora 72: 106Ð109.

Key to species

Plants erect; capitula ± sessile; fruit obcompressed, wedge-shaped-cuneate in outline, with two large terminal prickles; leaves obovate to obovate-oblong, cuneate A. hispidum

Plants with prostrate stems; capitula mostly pedicellate; fruit oblong-fusiform; leaves obovate to broadly obovate or subcircular A. australe

*Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 303 (1891).

Melampodium australe Loefl., Iter Hisp. : 268 (1758). Type: Ô... observatae in itinerere a Cumana ...... ad fluvium Orinoco, per Barcellonam & Las Missiones de Piritu ..... Feb. 1755.Õ (LINN)

Centrospermum xanthoides Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 4 (ed. folio): 213 (1818). Type: ÔCrescit inter Cumana et Bordones. (Nova Andalusia.) K Floret Augusto.Õ, nom. illegit. Ð according to the Index Nominum Genericorum database, but without supporting comment!

Acanthospermum brasilum Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Acad. Monac. 2: 53. (1819)[Apr.ÐMay 1820]. Type: ÔPatria Brasilia, unde D. Martius semina misitÕ. Holotype: M.

Orcya adhaerescens Vell., Fl. Flum. : 345 (1825)[7 Sept. - 28 Nov. 1829]. [Ic. Fl. Flum. 8: tab. 83 (1831).] Type: [Brazil:] ÔUdique habitat praecipue silvis excultisLocation of extant original material unknown.

Echinodium prostratum Poit. ex Cass., in Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 59: 245 (1829), nom nud. [Note: Cassini provided the following comment: ÔNous avons fait cette description gŽnŽrique [of Centrospermum!] sur un Žchantillon sec, en mauvais Žtat, receulli dans la Guiane franoise par M. Poiteau, et qui se trouve dans lÕherbier de M. Gay ou il etoit etiquete Echinodium prostratum Poit.Õ This specimen is in K!]

Acanthospermum xanthoides (Kunth) DC. [var.] a obtusifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836). Types: ÔÐ in Cuman‰? (Loefl.), in Brasiliae prov. Rio-Grande (h. Mus. Bras. n. 1069). Melampodium australe Loefl. itin. 268. Linn. sp. 1303. (v.s. ex Forsyth sine loci design.)Õ Syntypes: G-DC. Syntype: Ôh. Mus. Bras. 1069Õ, P.

Acanthospermum xanthoides (Kunth) DC. [var.] b acutifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836), nom. illegit. pro Centrospermum xanthioides Kunth

Acanthospermum hirsutum DC. Prodr. 5: 522. (1836), nom. illegit. superf. pro Acanthospermum brasilum Schrank

Argentina, Bolivia (La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz), Brazil, Colombia, Guiana, Paraguay, Venezuela, West Indies. Widespread as an introduced weed in the Old World.

Natiu, Tayecu’, Tepecur’, Yerba de la oveja (Freie et al., 2006).

Acanthospermum brasilum Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Acad. Monac. 2: 53. (1819)[Apr.ÐMay 1820] = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Acanthospermum hirsutum DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836), nom. superf. = Acanthospermum australe (Leofl.) Kuntze

*Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836). Type: ÔÂ in Brasiliae sabulosis maritimis circa Bahiam legit cl. Salzman. [21] .... (v.s. comm. ˆ cl. Salzm.)Õ. Holotype: G-DC; isotype: K.

Argentina, Bolivia (Santa Cruz, Tarija), Brazil, north to USA. Widely distributed in the palaeotropics.

Carretilla de oveja, Cuajerilla, Guajerilla, Rodajillo, Torito, Yerba de la oveja (Freire et al., 2006).

Acanthospermum xanthoides (Kunth) DC. [var.] b acutifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836), nom. illegit. = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Acanthospermum xanthoides (Kunth) DC. [var.] a obtusifolium DC., Prodr. 5: 522 (1836) = Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze