Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have physical dormancy, which can be overcome by scarifying the seed coat to allow water uptake and encourage germination.
Phaseolus vulgaris (Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.
Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand at 20 or 25ºC, or under an alternating temperature regime of 30/20ºC
The seeds of this species may be is Physically Dormant. If germination is low, try chipping the seed coat with a scalpel to encourage imbibition.
(Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
The seed pods (8-20 cm x 1-1.5 cm) are slender, narrower than in P. lunatus, usually with 4-6 seeds. The pods are hairless, straight or slightly curved, with rounded or convex edges. The seeds (0.7-1.6 cm) are variable in colour, some eyed with a different colour around the hilum, which itself is usually white. Seeds are kidney-shaped, oblong or spherical, and very variable in size.
The pods turn yellow at maturity.
Accepted name: Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Synonyms: Phaseolus aborigineus Burkart, Phaseolus aborigineus var. hondurensis Burkart, Phaseolus communis Pritz., Phaseolus esculentus Salisb., Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. aborigineus (Burkart) Burkart & H. Bruecher, Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Burkart) Baudet
Common name: kidney bean, common bean, French bean, haricot bean
References and Links
- Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- International Seed Testing Association (2010). International Rules for Seed Testing: edition 2010. ISTA, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.
- Purseglove, J.W. (1968). Tropical Crops: dicotyledons. Longman Group Ltd., UK.
- Rao, N.K., Hanson, J., Dulloo, M.E., Ghosh, K., Nowell, D. and Larinde, M. (2006). Manual of seed handling in genebanks. Handbooks for Genebanks No. 8. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.
- AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Phaseolus vulgaris.
- AVRDC - The World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan: fact sheet on Phaseolus vulgaris.
- PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Phaseolus vulgaris.
- SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Phaseolus vulgaris.
- Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Phaseolus vulgaris.