Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have physiological dormancy, which can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat.
Parinari curatellifolia section (Image: E. Vaes, RBG Kew)
Based on observations, this species seems to have Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.
Remove the pulp and wash and dry the seeds in the shade. Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand at 25ºC.
The seeds of this species may be Physiologically Dormant (based on members of the same family). If germination is low, overcome dormancy by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat. Use a moist pre-chill or pre-heat treatment (depending on local climatic conditions) or a dry after-ripening treatment, before germinating the seeds on agar, germination paper or sand at their optimum temperature. If this does not work, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip.
Parinari curatellifolia section
(Image: E. Vaes, RBG Kew)
The oval to round fruit (25.9-33.1 mm x 16.9-20.0 mm x 16.9-20.0 mm) is a drupe, containing a single seed which is brown in colour. An operculum is present on the endocarp. The seed configuration is anatropous and the white embryo is axial-spatulate, with expanded cotyledons, filling the whole seed.
The fruit turns from russet-yellow to greyish when young, to orange-yellow to brown at maturity.
See more images of this species at VIRBOGA (The Virtual Botanic Garden).
Accepted name: Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth.
Synonyms: Parinari chapelieri Baill., Ferolia curatellifolia (Planch. ex Benth.) Kuntze, Parinari gardineri Hemsl., Ferolia mobola (Oliv.) Kuntze, Parinari curatellifolia subsp. mobola (Oliv.) R.A.Graham, Parinari mobola Oliv., Irvingia mossambicensis Sims
Common name: mobala plum
References and Links
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- Janick, J. and Paull, R.E. (eds) (2008). The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. CAB International, UK.
- Sanon, M.D., Gaméné, C.S., Sacandé, M. and Neya, O. (2004). Desiccation and storage of Kigelia africana, Lophira lanceolata, Parinari curatellifolia and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides seeds from Burkina Faso. In M. Sacandé, D. Joker, M. Dulloo and K. Thompsen (eds) Comparative Storage Biology of Tropical Tree Seeds. IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Parinari curatellifolia.
- Forest & Landscape Denmark - University of Copenhagen, Denmark: seed leaflet on Parinari curatellifolia.
- SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Parinari curatellifolia.
- Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Parinari curatellifolia.