Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds have physical dormancy, which can be overcome by scarifying the seed coat to allow water uptake and encourage germination.
Hibiscus cannabinus (Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.
The seeds of this species are expected to be Physically Dormant (based on other species in the same genus). To overcome dormancy, chip the seed coat with a scalpel before placing under germination conditions.
Germinate on agar, germination paper (between paper) or sand at constant temperatures of 20 or 30ºC, or using an alternating temperature regime of 30/20ºC (with an 8/16hr photoperiod).
Hibiscus cannabinus section
(Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
The fruit (1 cm) is a globe-shaped capsule, pointed and bristly with irritant hairs. The seeds (5 x 3 mm) are numerous, nearly hairless, and wedge-shaped with acute angles.
See more images of this species at the Digital Atlas of Economic Plants.
Accepted name: Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Common name: kenaf, bilmi
References and Links
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- International Seed Testing Association (2010). International Rules for Seed Testing: edition 2010. ISTA, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.
- Purseglove, J.W. (1968). Tropical Crops: dicotyledons. Longman Group Ltd., UK.
- AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Hibiscus cannabinus.
- PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Hibiscus cannabinus.
- SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Hibiscus cannabinus.
- Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Hibiscus cannabinus.