Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have physiological dormancy, which would have to be overcome before they will germinate. The seeds are relatively short-lived, so may not remain viable for a long time in storage.
Capsicum annuum (Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.
The seeds are relatively Short-lived in storage. Monitor viability at least every five years, and more frequently once viability begins to decline. When viability falls close to the regeneration standard, the collection will need to be re-generated or re-collected.
Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand with an alternating temperature regime of 35/20ºC (with an 8/16 hr photoperiod).
The seeds of this species may have non-deep Physiological Dormancy. If germination is low, this type of seed dormancy can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat. Use a moist pre-chill or pre-heat treatment (depending on local climatic conditions) or a dry after-ripening treatment, before germinating the seeds on agar, germination paper or sand at their optimum temperature. If this does not work, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip.
(Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)
See more images of this species at the Digital Atlas of Economic Plants.
Accepted name: Capsicum annuum L.
Synonyms: Capsicum abyssinicum A.Rich.
Common name: various
References and Links
- Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- International Seed Testing Association (2010). International Rules for Seed Testing: edition 2010. ISTA, Bassersdorf, Switzerland.
- Walters, C., Wheeler, L.M., Grotenhuis, J.M. (2005). Longevity of seeds stored in a genebank: species characteristics. Seed Science Research, Vol 15 (1): pp1-20.
- AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Capsicum annuum.
- AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan: fact sheet on Capsicum annuum.
- PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Capsicum annuum.
- SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Capsicum annuum.
- Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Capsicum annuum.