Skip to main content
You are here
Facebook icon
Pinterest icon
Twitter icon

Early Angiosperm Evolution

The origin and early evolution of angiosperms

Trithuria submersa (Hydatellaceae) growing in vitro



A priority for this project is to develop evo-devo studies on the early-divergent angiosperm family Hydatellaceae. Planned work on Hydatellaceae aims to establish the family as a model organism for early angiosperm evolution. This work involves a collaborative network. Kew maintains close links with palaeobotanists who work on the relationships and structures of selected extinct seed-plant groups to allow direct comparison of angiosperm structures with those of other seed plants.



Key publications 2006-2011 

  • Rudall, P.J., Sokoloff, D.D., Remizowa, M.V.,Conran, J.G., Davis, J.I., Macfarlane, T.D., & Stevenson, D.W. (2007). Morphology of Hydatellaceae, an anomalous aquatic family recently recognized as an early-divergent angiosperm lineage. American Journal of Botany 94: 1073–1092.
  • Sokoloff, D.D., Remizowa, M.V., Macfarlane, T.D., Tuckett, R.E., Ramsay, M.M., Beer, A.S., Yadav S.R. & Rudall, P.J. (2008). Seedling diversity in Hydatellaceae: implications for the evolution of angiosperm cotyledons. Annals of Botany 101:153–164.
  • Rudall, P.J., Remizowa, M.V., Prenner, G., Prychid, C.A., Tuckett, R. & Sokoloff, D.D. (2009). Non-flowers near the base of extant angiosperms? Spatiotemporal arrangement of organs in reproductive units of Hydatellaceae, and its bearing on the origin of the flower. American Journal of Botany 96: 67–82.
  • Warner, K.A., Rudall, P.J.,& Frohlich, .W. (2009). Environmental control of sepalness and petalness in perianth organs of waterlilies – a new Mosaic Theory on the evolutionary origin of a differentiated perianth. Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 3559–3574.
  • Rudall, P.J., Eldridge, T., Tratt, J., Smith, S.Y., Ramsay, M.M., Tuckett, R.E., Collinson, M.E., Remizowa, M.V. & Sokoloff, D.D. (2009). Seed fertilization, development and germination in Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales): implications for endosperm evolution in early angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 96: 1581–1593.
  • Vialette-Guiraud, A.C.M., Alaux, M., Legeai, F., Finet, C., Chambrier, P., Brown, S., Chauvet, A., Magdalena, C., Rudall, P.J. and Scutt, C.P. (2011). Cabomba as a model for studies of early angiosperm evolution. Annals of Botany xx: xxx–xxx.[doi:10.1093/aob/mcr088.

Project partners and collaborators


Jason Hilton (University of Birmingham)


M. Graça Sajo (UNESP)


Charles Scutt (University of Lyons)


Dmitry Sokoloff,  Margarita Remizowa (University of Moscow)

Project funders


Bentham-Moxon Trust

Royal Society

Annex material

Annex 1:

Recent relevant papers


Project team

Jodrell Laboratory

Richard Bateman (Honorary Research Associate), Michael Frohlich (Honorary Research Associate), Chryssie Prychid, Paula Rudall

Science Teams: