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Ornithochilus cacharensis

Ornithochilus cacharensis is a Critically Endangered orchid, which was recently discovered in Cachar, Assam (India).
Ornithochilus cacharensis inflorescences

Ornithochilus cacharensis (Photo: H. A. Barbhuiya, Botanical Survey of India)

Species information

Scientific name: 

Ornithochilus cacharensis Barbhuiya, B.K.Dutta & Schuit.

Conservation status: 

Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List criteria. Only one plant has been recorded.


Epiphytic (on the trunk of Duabanga grandiflora) in wet evergreen lowland forest.

Key Uses: 

None known.

Known hazards: 

None known.


Genus: Ornithochilus

About this species

Ornithochilus cacharensis is a small orchid with bright red-purple flowers opening from June to October. Its growth habit is monopodial (it continues to grow each year from the same growing point). Only one plant has been recorded, and it is considered to be Critically Endangered.

Ornithochilus is closely related to the well-known genus Phalaenopsis (moth orchids) and will in the future be combined with the latter.


Discover more

Geography and distribution

Ornithochilus cacharensis inflorescence
Inflorescence of Ornithochilus cacharensis (Photo: H. A Barbhuiya, Botanical Survey of India)

Ornithochilus cacharensis has only been recorded in Cachar district, Assam, India.

The single recorded individual was found growing as an epiphyte on the trunk of a Duabanga grandiflora in wet evergreen lowland forest at about 130 m above sea level. It was growing in association with Piper species.


Overview: Monopodial (growing from the same point each year) epiphyte (growing on another plant for support). Roots circular in cross-section, 2.5–3.0 mm in diameter.

Stems: Unbranched, 2.0–3.5 cm long.

Leaves: Mid-green, twisted at the base, elliptic-oblong, 19.0–21.0 × 3.0–4.3 cm, with a sheathing base, 1.0–1.2 cm long.

Flowers: Red-purple, the lip darker than sepals and petals, about 1.7 cm in diameter. Borne in inflorescences 35–38 cm long, with 1–4 branches, containing about 30–70 flowers. Lip four-lobed, with a curved spur about 4.2 mm long situated in the middle of the lip. Column red-purple, hairless, 6.2–6.5 mm long, with the ventral side whitish. Pollinia (distinct masses of pollen grains) yellow and four in number (in two pairs).

Fruits: Unknown.

Kew scientist works with partners to publish new orchid species

During recent fieldwork in the eastern part of the Borail Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Cachar district of Assam, H. A. Barbhuiya (Botanical Survey of India) discovered a single, mature individual of a small, monopodial orchid with bright red-purple flowers. It was described as a new species, Ornithochilus cacharensis, in a 2012 issue of Kew Bulletin, in collaboration with partners including Kew scientist André Schuiteman.

Its specific epithet cacharensis was given in honour of the district (Cachar) where it was found.

How this species differs from others in the genus

Ornithochilus cacharensis flower
Uniformly red-purple flowers of Ornithochilus cacharensis (Photo: H. A. Barbhuiya, Botanical Survey of India)

The column of Ornithochilus cacharensis differs from that of O. difformis in being twice as long and hairless.

The margins of the lip epichile (terminal divisions of the lip) are sharply toothed, in contrast to the small, rounded teeth of O. yingjiangensis.

Ornithochilus cacharensis differs from both of these species in its uniformly red-purple flowers and the relatively longer lateral lobes of the lip hypochile (basal part of the lip).

Threats and conservation

Ornithochilus cacharensis has been assessed as Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Only a single plant has been recorded, and its habitat is threatened by slash-and-burn cultivation and tree-felling.

This species at Kew

Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of the related species Ornithochilus difformis are held in Kew’s Herbarium. The details of some of these can be seen in Kew’s Herbarium Catalogue.

References and credits

Barbhuiya, H. A., Deori, C., Dutta B. K., Das, A. Kr., Baishya, A. K. & Schuiteman, A. (2012). Ornithochilus cacharensis (Orchidaceae), a new species from India (Assam). Kew Bulletin 67: 511–516.

Kew Science Editor: André Schuiteman
Copyediting: Emma Tredwell
Kew would like to thank the following contributors: H. A. Barbhuiya, C. Deori and A. K. Baishya (Botanical Survey of India); B. K. Dutta and A. Kr. Das (Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University).

Although every effort has been taken to ensure that the information contained in these pages is reliable and complete, notes on hazards, edibility and suchlike included here are recorded information and do not constitute recommendations. No responsibility will be taken for readers’ own actions.

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