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Xylopia aethiopica

Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have morphological or morphophysiological dormancy, which would have to be overcome before they will germinate.

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Seed Storage

This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.

Germination Requirements

The seeds of this species may be either Morphologically or Morphophysiologically Dormant (inferred from available information on germination and of characteristics of seeds in this family). The seed embryo could be underdeveloped or not fully formed at dispersal, and may display additional physiological dormancy. The seeds would need to experience several 'seasons', allowing the embryo to grow to a critical size, before germination will occur. Try mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat, using a combination of moist pre-chill and pre-heat treatments (depending on local climatic conditions).

Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand at a suitable temperature.

If germination is still low, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip before sowing.

Seed Morphology




Accepted name: Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich.

Synonyms: Xylopia eminii Engl., Xylopia dekeyzeriana De Wild., Xylopia gilletii De Wild., Habzelia aethiopica (Dunal) A.DC., Unona aethiopica Dunal, Uvaria aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich., Xylopicrum aethiopicum (Dunal) Kuntze, Xylopia undulata P.Beauv.

Common name:

References and Links

  • Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
  • AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Xylopia aethiopica.
  • SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Xylopia aethiopica.
  • Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Xylopia aethiopica.