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Treculia africana

Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have physiological dormancy, which can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat.

Treculia africana (Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)

Seed Storage

This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.

Germination Requirements

Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand at a suitable temperature (depending on local climatic conditions).

The seeds of this species may be Physiologically Dormant (inferred from available information on germination and of characteristics of seeds in this family). If germination is low, overcome dormancy by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat. Use a moist pre-chill or pre-heat treatment (depending on local climatic conditions) or a dry after-ripening treatment, before germinating the seeds on agar, germination paper or sand at their optimum temperature. If this does not work, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip.

Seed Morphology

The fruits (45 cm) are yellow and spongy in texture. The seeds are embedded at various depths in the fleshy, elongated bracts. The surface of the fruit has rough, pointed outgrowths.

As fruits mature, they change in colour from bright green to a lighter green with brownish patches and spots.

See images of this species at the Digital Atlas of Economic Plants.



Accepted name: Treculia africana Decne. ex Trécul

Synonyms: Antiaris toxicaria var. africana Scott Elliot ex A. Chev., Treculia erinacea var. mollis León

Common name: African breadfruit

References and Links

  • Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
  • Janick, J. and Paull, R.E. (eds) (2008). The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. CAB International, UK.
  • Purseglove, J.W. (1968). Tropical Crops: dicotyledons. Longman Group Ltd., UK. 
  • AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Treculia africana.
  • SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Treculia africana.
  • Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Treculia africana.