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Solanum villosum

Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds may have physiological dormancy, which can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat.

Solanum villosum subsp. villosum (Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)

Seed Storage

This species has Orthodox seeds. To avoid a decline in viability, remove seeds from ripe fruits soon after harvest and allow to dry slowly, under ambient conditions, before transferring to a cool dry room. Dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.

Germination Requirements

Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand at 20 or 25ºC.

The seeds of this species are expected to be Physiologically Dormant (based on other species in the same genus). If germination is low, this type of seed dormancy can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat. Use a moist pre-chill or pre-heat treatment (depending on local climatic conditions) or a dry after-ripening treatment, before germinating the seeds on agar, germination paper or sand at their optimum temperature. If this does not work, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip.

Seed Morphology

See another image of this species at the Digital Atlas of Economic Plants.

Solanum villosum subsp. villosum
(Image: S. Wood, RBG Kew)



Accepted nameSolanum villosum Mill.

SynonymsSolanum villosum Mill. subsp. villosumSolanum luteum Mill. subsp. luteumSolanum luteum Mill., Solanum nigrum var. villosum L., Solanum villosum Moench, Solanum nigrum subsp. villosum (L.) Ball

Common name: nightshade, red nightshade

References and Links

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
  • AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Solanum villosum.
  • AVRDC- The World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan: fact sheet on Solanum villosum.
  • PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Solanum villosum.
  • SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Solanum villosum.
  • Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Solanum villosum.