Why are the seeds of this species difficult? The seeds have physical dormancy, which can be overcome by scarifying the seed coat to allow water uptake and encourage germination.
Sida cordifolia (Image: E. Vaes, RBG Kew)
This species has Orthodox seeds - dry to 15-20% eRH and store at -20ºC, or as cool as possible.
The seeds of this species are Physically Dormant. Scarify the seeds by removing the covering structures and chipping the seed coat with a scalpel.
Germinate on agar, germination paper or sand, at temperatures between 20 and 30°C.
The fruit is a camarium with a mericarp and seed coat. The seed (1.8 x 1.2 x 2.3 mm) is brown and reniform in shape, with a smooth surface and without a sarcotesta. The raphe is very short and the hilum is small. The seed configuration is ana-campylotropous with an axial-folded, dominant embryo, white in colour.
See more images of this species at the Digital Atlas of Economic Plants.
Sida cordifolia section
(Image: E. Vaes, RBG Kew)
Accepted name: Sida cordifolia L.
Common name: Indian country mallow
References and Links
- Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (1994). Genebank Standards. FAO/IPGRI, Rome, Italy.
- AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Sida cordifolia.
- PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Sida cordifolia.
- SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Sida cordifolia.
- Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Sida cordifolia.