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Artocarpus altilis

Why are the seeds of this species difficult? This species has recalcitrant seeds, which have a high critical moisture content and will rapidly lose viability if they are dried. The seeds also have physiological dormancy, which must be overcome before they will germinate.

Artocarpus altilis (Image: W. Stuppy, RBG Kew)

Seed Storage

This species has Recalcitrant seeds which cannot be dried without causing a decline in viability. Do not place the seeds under sub-zero temperatures as they will suffer from freezing damage due to their high moisture content.

Germination Requirements

The seeds of this species are Physiologically Dormant.

This type of dormancy can be overcome by mimicking the seasonal patterns of the species' native habitat. Use a moist pre-chill or pre-heat treatment (depending on local climatic conditions), before germinating the seeds on agar, germination paper or sand at their optimum temperature. If this does not work, you can perform delicate surgery to enable the embryo to grow. Excise the tissue near the root tip.

Seed Morphology




Accepted nameArtocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

SynonymsArtocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Sitodium altile Parkinson, Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L.f., Radermachia incisa Thunb.

Common name: breadfruit

References and Links

  • Baskin, C.C. and Baskin J.M. (1998). Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, USA.
  • Purseglove, J.W. (1968). Tropical Crops: dicotyledons. Longman Group Ltd., UK.
  • AFPD (African Flowering Plants Database) - Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, RSA: Artocarpus altilis.
  • PROTAbase (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) - Wageningen, Netherlands: Artocarpus altilis.
  • SID (Seed Information Database) - Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK: Artocarpus altilis.
  • Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden, USA: Artocarpus altilis.