Whilst studying herbarium specimens collected from the Caribbean Islands, UKOTs intern Alex Roberts was thrilled to discover photographs taken during a plant collecting expedition to Dominica in 1940, tucked away alongside the plant specimens they portray.
Since January this year I have been working as an intern with the UK Overseas Territories Team based at the Herbarium here at Kew. The team is currently engaged in a major project to make conservation assessments of plants growing in the Territories. This objective links directly with Target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, which is to make 'an assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species, as far as possible, to guide conservation action'. A conservation assessment enables the species to be assigned to one of the eight IUCN Red List categories, ranging from Least Concern to Extinct. Our project will focus on each of the 16 Territories in turn, and has started with two territories, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands, both located in the Caribbean biodiversity hotspot.
Digitizing the specimens
Before conservation assessments can be made however, there is a lot of preliminary work for the team to do. Firstly, specimens of the plant species being assessed need to be collected from the Herbarium cupboards so that the information on the specimen labels can be added to the UKOTs Online Herbarium and the specimens themselves imaged using a digital scanner.
Alex Roberts with herbarium specimens
Labels on herbarium specimens often give detailed information, including who collected the specimen, where and when it was collected, and a description of the plant and its habitat. The geographical details accompanying each specimen allow us to determine more precisely where the species occurs or has occurred in the past. These data help us to build up a picture of the status of a particular species and contribute to the conservation assessment.
Once the information from the labels has been added to the UKOTs Online Herbarium, the specimens are ready to be imaged. Plants come in all shapes and sizes and although most specimens are fairly flat and easy to scan, some are not, and can sometimes be bulky or brittle and require careful handling. A further challenge is presented by any plant parts that have been placed in the packet or capsule which is sometimes attached to the herbarium sheet. The function of the packet is to keep safe parts of the specimen that may have become unstuck from the herbarium sheet or to store small and fragile parts that are important for species identification, such as flowers, fruits, and seeds. Ensuring that these key parts of the specimen don’t roll or blow away can be quite tricky.
Despite being a challenge to image, however, the contents of the packets are often visually interesting and occasionally may contain a surprise. When imaging some recent specimens, I discovered that sometimes a packet can contain more than just plant parts. Two specimens collected by American botanist W. H. Hodge contained black and white photographs in the packets. The first specimen was Miconia mirabilis, collected by Hodge in 1940 on the island of Dominica. The photograph shows Hodge in the field, standing next to this species of small tree. The information on this label will be added to the data obtained from all of the other labels on Miconia mirabilis specimens found in the Herbarium. The second specimen was Selaginella delicatula, a fern ally, also collected in 1940 on Dominica. This time the photograph shows numerous Selaginella delicatula plants growing in a shady and wet ravine.
Herbarium specimen of Miconia mirabilis
Herbarium specimen of Selaginella delicatula
Readers will have probably noticed that the two plant specimens referred to were not in fact collected in a UK Overseas Territory but in Dominica. The reason for this is that, while some of the plant species being assessed are endemic (only growing in a particular country or region), most species also grow in countries neighbouring the UKOTs. Miconia mirabilis, for example, is a native of Mexico, the majority of the Caribbean Islands and South America. This means that, to get a complete picture of the conservation status of plants native to the UKOTs, we also need to capture the data and images of herbarium specimens that were collected in countries outside the UKOTs. Another point to notice is that the names on the specimens are Miconia guianensis and Selaginella flabellata. These names are now considered to be synonyms (superseded names) of the names Miconia mirabilis and Selaginella delicatula, the names now accepted by botanists. In order to clarify species names The Plant Listis an invaluable online resource, and one that I have used constantly during this work.
Starting work on the Red List
Once all the work with the herbarium specimens has been completed, the second stage is to carry out a desk-top analysis in order to obtain additional data for the species, including species distribution, habitat information, existing conservation measures and, crucially, the nature and extent of any threats. Once the conservation assessment of a species has finally been completed, the species is allocated an IUCN Red List. category. Species that are categorized as threatened will need to be the focus of conservation efforts.
We have now finished databasing and imaging specimens from the Cayman and British Virgin Islands and are now ready to begin the desk-top analysis... so back to work!
- Alex -
UKOTs bloggers (left to right): Sara Bárrios, Pat Griggs, Colin Clubbe, Marcella Corcoran, Tom Heller, Martin Hamilton.
Using modern plant specimens collected in the field and historic specimens held in Kew’s Herbarium, together with detailed habitat descriptions and other field information, we are documenting the plant diversity of the UKOTs. We are making this information accessible via the UKOTs Online Herbarium. This resource, together with the field research, enables us to undertake conservation assessments, produce Red Lists of threatened species, and rank potentially invasive species – all of which underpin the development of management plans to protect the UKOTs’ plant heritage.
The UKOTs bloggers are:
- Colin Clubbe (Head of UKOTs and Conservation Training)
- Martin Hamilton (UKOTs Programme Co-ordinator)
- Marcella Corcoran (UKOTs Programme Officer – Horticultural Liaison)
- Sara Bárrios (UKOTs Programme Officer – GSPC Targets 1&2 OTEP Project)
- Pat Griggs (UKOTs Public Engagement Officer)
- Tom Heller (UKOTs Millennium Seed Bank Officer)
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