On the trail of threatened plants in the British Virgin Islands
By: Martin Hamilton, Sara Barrios - 23/10/2013
During their recent visit to the British Virgin Islands (BVI) in the Caribbean, Martin, Sara and Marcella from Kew’s UK Overseas Territories team were searching for some of the islands’ threatened plants in an effort to understand the dangers they face.
Working with the National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands, the UKOTs team visited several islands over the course of three weeks to record the locations of some of the rare plants that are under threat in their native habitats.
Collecting fruits from a spiny Mammillaria nivosa on Tortola (Photo: Sara Barrios)
As well as collecting preserved specimens and DNA samples for formal identification back at Kew, the team harvested seeds and/or cuttings to be propagated either at the JR O’Neal Botanic Garden on Tortola (the largest island in BVI) or in Kew’s plant nurseries. Martin, Sara and Marcella recorded the highlights (and some of the hazards they faced) during their expedition.
Day 6 – Tortola
For the first time, we located several trees of Eugenia sessiliflora, a very rare plant from the same family as clove trees and eucalyptus (Myrtaceae), which occurs only in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Some of the trees were in flower and fruit so we were able to collect seeds as well as shoot cuttings for growing on at the gardens.
The propagating team with Eugenia sessiliflora and Rondeletia pilosa (Photo: Sara Barrios)
Day 7 – Fallen Jerusalem
Today we visited the small island of Fallen Jerusalem, a BVI National Park. A previously unknown population of poke-me-boy (Acacia anegadensis) was found here a couple of years ago by our colleague, Colin. We managed to survey part of the island, where we found the remaining trees of A. anegadensis and recorded these locations with a GPS (global positioning system) device. DNA samples were taken for further research.
Preparing plant specimens for pressing and drying on Fallen Jerusalem (Photo: Sara Barrios)
Day 8 – Virgin Gorda
An exciting discovery today! We collected a plant very similar to wirewist (Metastelma anegadense) in flower and fruit growing on Virgin Gorda. When we get the specimen back to the Herbarium at Kew, we will be able to confirm its identity. Wirewist was previously described as endemic to the flat limestone island of Anegada. Virgin Gorda has volcanic terrain, very different from Anegada’s flat dry landscape. Although it has now been found on two islands, wirewist is still unique to the British Virgin Islands.
Metastelma anegadense in flower and fruit (Photo: Sara Barrios)
Day 11 – Tortola
Although we’re all passionate about plants, there are some which we’re less enthusiastic about – today we encountered a very dense patch of a liana known locally as ‘catch and keep’. This is Acacia retusa with seriously sharp, backward-pointing thorns, which do just what the name implies. Once you’ve been caught by the thorns, they really keep hold of you!
Day 12 - Anegada
Today’s sad news was finding some of BVI's most endangered species just bulldozed down on Anegada. We found a large poke-me-boy (Acacia anegadensis) tree by the side of the road and mad dog shrubs (Malpighia woodburyana) had been cleared. These species, which are already considered threatened with extinction, due to their very restricted distribution, are being cleared to make way for wider, paved roads.
Day 13 – Beef Island
Despite the hoards of mosquitoes which harassed us during our fieldwork on Beef Island, we were all thrilled to come across more trees of Eugenia sessiliflora, a new record for this island. More herbarium specimens were collected together with extra cuttings to take to Kew and JR O’Neal Botanic Garden’s plant nurseries.
Day 18 – JR O’Neal Botanic Garden
Following our fieldwork we’re based in the JR O’Neal Botanic Garden, helping out with the propagation of some of the BVI’s native plants to get them ready for a new display. The Governor of the Islands, Boyd McCleary, paid the Garden a visit to find out more about the work Kew has been doing in collaboration with the National Parks Trust.
Governor's visit to J R O'Neal Botanic Garden
Having completed all the paperwork relating to the Convention on Biological Diversity, plant export and plant health regulations, we shipped our specimens to Kew today. In total: 27 DNA samples, 264 herbarium specimens, 22 spirit samples, seeds from 9 species and cuttings from 5 native species. These will all be of enormous value in helping us to understand the vegetation of BVI and in trying to develop reliable methods of cultivating plants that have never before been grown outside the islands. It will also help to inform the conservation status of the species we encountered and will guide future conservation action.
- Martin, Sara and Marcella -
- Read about our discovery and conservation of plants in the British Virgin Islands on Storify
- Assessing the coastal biodiversity of Anegada to support the development of a Biodiversity Action Plan for the island
- Developing Ex Situ Conservation Collections of UK Overseas Territories Plant Species In-Territory and at Kew
- Integrating National Parks, Education and Community Development for the British Virgin Islands
- UKOTs Online Herbarium
- Blog post: Collecting and growing native plants of the British Virgin Islands
UKOTs bloggers (left to right): Sara Bárrios, Pat Griggs, Colin Clubbe, Marcella Corcoran, Tom Heller, Martin Hamilton.
Using modern plant specimens collected in the field and historic specimens held in Kew’s Herbarium, together with detailed habitat descriptions and other field information, we are documenting the plant diversity of the UKOTs. We are making this information accessible via the UKOTs Online Herbarium. This resource, together with the field research, enables us to undertake conservation assessments, produce Red Lists of threatened species, and rank potentially invasive species – all of which underpin the development of management plans to protect the UKOTs’ plant heritage.
The UKOTs bloggers are:
- Colin Clubbe (Head of UKOTs and Conservation Training)
- Martin Hamilton (UKOTs Programme Co-ordinator)
- Marcella Corcoran (UKOTs Programme Officer – Horticultural Liaison)
- Sara Bárrios (UKOTs Programme Officer – GSPC Targets 1&2 OTEP Project)
- Pat Griggs (UKOTs Public Engagement Officer)
- Tom Heller (UKOTs Millennium Seed Bank Officer)
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