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References currently represented within the MPNS resource

A complete list of medicinal plant references that are indexed in the Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) portal, organised by region. We are currently adding more references which will be included in the next release of the portal.

Medicinal Plant Names Services banner

The MPNS resource is built by collecting plant names from literature on medicinal plants, this includes:

  • pharmacopoeias
  • monographs
  • ethnobotanical surveys and regional works

All references are listed below organised into geographic regions based on the countries they cover.

Our selection of references has been guided by three main aims:

  1. To cover references of regulatory importance, for example pharmacopoeias and the EMA community herbal monographs.
  2. To cover references that reflect the most commonly traded medicinal plants.
  3. To be global in scope.

References are organised into regions based on the United Nations geoscheme.

The MPNS resource is currently Version 6, containing a total of 117 references, new additions to this version are indicated by '[V6]' at the end of a citation. See the Resource page for further details.

We are still adding data to the resource, so please contact us if you know of additional references which you feel should be included: mpns@kew.org


Africa

  • Arnold, T.H., Prentice, C.A., Hawker, L.C., Snyman, E.E., Tomalin, M., Crouch, N.R. & Pottas-Bircher, C. (2002). Medicinal and Magical Plants of Southern Africa: An Annotated Checklist. Strelitzia. 13: 1-203. .
  • Brendler, T., Eloff, J.N., Gurib-Fakim, A. & Phillips, L.D. (ed.) (2010). African Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Graphic Press, Mauritius.
  • Burkill, H.M. (1997). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition, Vol. 4. Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V6]
  • Burkill, H.M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition, Vol. 3. Families J-L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. [V6]
  • Busia, K. (ed.) (2007). Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Science and Technology Policy Research Institute, Accra.
  • Gurib-Fakim, A. & Brendler, T. (2004). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Indian Ocean Islands: Madagascar, Cormoros, Seychelles and Mascarenes. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart. 
  • Iwu, M.M. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 
  • Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (eds) (2008). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 11(1): Medicinal plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, CTA PROTA, Wageningen. 
  • Boily, Y. & Van Puyvelde, L. (1986). Screening of Medicinal Plants of Rwanda (Central Africa) for Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 16 (1): 1-13.
  • Oliver-Bever, O. (1983). Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa II: Plants Acting on the Nervous System. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 7 (1): 1-93.
  • Olowokudejo, J.D., Kadiri, A.B. and Travih V.A. (2008). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Markets and Medicinal Plants in Lagos State of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 12: 851-65. 2008. [V6]
  • Van Wyk, B.E. (2015). A Review of Commercially Important African Medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 176: 118-134.  
  • Williams, V.L., Victor, J.E., & Crouch, N.R. (2013). Red Listed Medicinal Plants of South Africa: Status, Trends, and Assessment Challenges. South African Journal of Botany 86: 23-35. [V6]

South Asia

  • Anon. (2006). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 1. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu. 
  • Anon. (2009). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 2. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu. 
  • Anon. (2007-2008). The Unani Pharmacopoeia of India, Vol. 1-5. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.
  • Anon. (1999-2011). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Vol. 1-7 (1st edn). Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.
  • Navchoo, I.A. & Buth, G.M. (1992). Ethnobotany of Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir State. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. Additional Series 10: 251-258. [V6]
  • Manandhar, N.P. & Manandhar, S. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. [V6]
  • Rao, A.N. (2004). Medicinal Orchid Wealth of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern (Newsletter of ENVIS Node, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore) 1(2): 1-5. [V6]
  • Siddha Pharmacopoeia Committee (2008). The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, s.loc. 
  • Sundaraghavan, R.S. & Singh, N.P. (1984). An Inventory of Endemic and Vulnerable Species of Western India Deserving Conservation. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 5(1): 153-164. [V6]
  • Ved, D.K. & Goraya, G.S. (2008). Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India. FRLHT, Bangalore.

East Asia

  • Anon. (2002). The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia, English edition (8th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc.
  • Anon. (2007). Korean Pharmacopoeia (9th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc. 
  • Anon. (s.dat.). Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. Vols. 1-6 (viewed: 01/09/2014). 
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2005). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2005. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing. 
  • China Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2010). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing. 
  • China Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2015). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015, Chinese edition. China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing. [V6]
  • Committee of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (ed.) (2006). The Japanese Pharmacopoeia (15th edn), English edition (JP XV). Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Tokyo. 
  • Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2012). Japanese Pharmacopoeia (16th edn), English edition (JP XVI). s.loc. 
  • WHO (1997). Medicinal Plants in China: A Selection of 150 Commonly Used Species (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 2). World Health Organization, Manila. [V6]
  • Zheng, X.L. et al. (2013). Ethnobotanical Study on Medicinal Plants around Limu Mountains of Hainan Island, China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 148(3): 964-974., s.loc. [V6]

South East Asia

  • Caniago, I. & Siebert, S.F. (1998). Medicinal Plant Ecology, Knowledge and Conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany. 52 (3): 229-250.
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (1999). Malaysian Herbal Monograph, Vol. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. [V6]
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2009). Malaysian Herbal Monograph, Vol. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. [V6]
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2013). Malaysian Herbal Monograph, Vol. 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. [V6]
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (1)).
  • Slamet Sutani Budi Rahayu (2003). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (3): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. [V6]
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (eds) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (2)).
  • WHO (1990). Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 3). World Health Organization, Manila. [V6]

Western Asia

  • Al-Qura'n, S.  (2009). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Wild Medicinal Plants in Showbak, Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 123: 45-50. 
  • Fleurentin, J. & Pelt, J. (1982). Repertory of Drugs and Medicinal Plants of Yemen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 6 (1): 85-108. 
  • Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (ed.) (2005). Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants of UAE. Vol. 1. Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine (ZCHRTM).
  • Lev, E. & Amar, Z. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in the Kingdom of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 82(2): 131-145. [V6]
  • Oran, S.A. & Ali-Eisawi, D.M. (1998). Check-list of Medicinal Plants in Jordan. Dirasat. Medical and Biological Sciences, Jordan 25: 84-112. [V6]
  • Özhatay, N., Koyuncu, M., Atay, S. & Byfield, A. (1997). The Wild Medicinal Plant Trade in Turkey. Doǧal Hayatı Koruma Derneǧi, Istanbul.
  • Said, O., Khalil, K., Fulder, S. & Azaizeh, H. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Herbs in Israel, the Golan Heights and the West Bank Region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83: 251-265. 

Central Asia

  • Eisenman, S.W., Zaurov, D.E. & Struwe, L. (ed.) (2013). Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Springer, New York. 


Australasia

  • Packer, J. et al. (2012). An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by the Yaegl Aboriginal Community in Northern New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 139.1(2012): 244-255. [V6]
  • Therapeutic Goods Administration (ed.) (2007). Substances that May be Used in Listed Medicines in Australia. Therapeutic Goods Administration, Symonston. 

Europe

  • Anon. (2000). Les Plantes Médicinales de la Pharmacopée (Liste A). Société Française d'Ethnopharmacologie.
  • Bartram, T.H. (1995). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Grace Publishers, Christchurch, Dorset.*  
  • Bremness, L. (1994). Kräuter Gewürze und Heilpflanzen. Ravensburger.*  
  • European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (ed.) (2007). European Pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1-2 (6th edn). Council of Europe, Strasbourg. 
  • European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM) (2012). European Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopée Européenne (7.8 edn). Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
  • European Medicines Agency (2006 - 2014). Community Herbal Monographs (Selected Final Versions Adopted Between 2006 and 2014). European Medicines Agency (EMA)/The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). 
  • Grey-Wilson, C. (1995). Les Fleurs Sauvages: Le guide visuel de plus de 500 especes de fleurs d'Europe temperee. Bordas, Paris.*  
  • Hänsel, R. et al. (1992-1998). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vol. 1-5  (5th edn). s.loc.
  • Lange, D. (1998). Europe's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic International, Cambridge, UK. 
  • Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (2008). British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4. Stationery Office, London. 
  • Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (2011). British Pharmacopoeia 2012. Vol. 4. Stationery Office, London. 
  • Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (2014). British Pharmacopoeia 2012. Vol. 4. Stationery Office, London. 
  • Morales, R., Macia, M.J., Dorda, E. & Garcia Villaraco, A. (1996). Archivos de Flora Iberica, Numero 7, Nombres vulgares, 2. Real Jardin Botanico CSIC, Madrid.*  
  • Rigat, M., Bonet, M.Á., Garcia, S., Garnatje, T. & Vallès, J. (2007). Studies on Pharmaceutical Ethnobotany in the High River Ter Valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 113(2): 267-277. [V6]
  • Schilcher, H. (2008). Kleines Heilkräuter-Lexikon, 5 Aufl. Walter Hädecke Verlag, Weil der Stadt.*
  • Shikov et al. (2014). Medicinal Plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia: Their History and Applications. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 154 (3): 481-536. 
  • Spohn, M.,  Golte-Bechtle, M. & Spohn, R. (2008). Was blüht denn da? Sicher nach Farbe bestimmen. Franckh Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart.*  
  • Suozzi, R.M. (1995). Dizionario Delle Erbe Medicinali: Oltre duecentocinquanta specie vegetali esaminate nei loro effetti curativi e nella loro utilizzazione practica. Newton Compton Editori, Rome.*  
  • Swissmedic (ed.) (2006). Pharmacopoeia Helvetica: Deutsche Ausgabe (10th edn). Swissmedic, Bern. 
  • Zlatković, B.K. et al. (2014). Traditional Use of the Native Medicinal Plant Resource of Mt. Rtanj (Eastern Serbia): Ethnobotanical Evaluation and Comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151.1(2014): 704-713. [V6]

North America

  • Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States. HPUS Online Database (viewed: 26/10/2009). 
  • McGuffin, M., Kartesz, J.T., Leung, A.Y. & Tucker, A.O. (2000). Herbs of Commerce (2nd edn). AHPA, Silver Spring, USA. 
  • Moerman, D.E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 
  • United States Pharmacopeia (ed.) (2008). Food Chemicals Codex (6th edn.). U.S. Pharmacopeia, s.loc. 
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2008). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 32. The National Formulary NF 27. 2009, Vol. 1-3. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville. 
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2013). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 37. The National Formulary NF 32. 2014. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville. 
  • Weiner, M.A. (1972). Earth Medicine - Earth Food. Plant Remedies, Drugs and Natural Foods of the North American Indians. Collier, New York. [V6]

Central America

  • Alcorn, J.B. (1984). Huastec Mayan Ethnobotany. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. [V6]
  • Coe, F.G. & Anderson, G.J. (1996). Screening of Medicinal Plants Used by the Garífuna of Eastern Nicaragua for Bioactive Compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 53: 29-50. 
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2001). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Secretaria de Salud, México D.F. 
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2013). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (2nd edn). Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City. [V6]

South America

  • Anon. (s.dat.). Farmacopea Argentina (8th edn). Vol 3 (viewed: 09/09/2012). Ministerio de Salud, 
  • ANVISA (2010). Farmacopeia Brasileira (5th edn), 2 Vols. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Brasilia 
  • Balbachas, A. & Rodriguez, R.H. (1982). Las Plantas Curan, Sexta edicion. Reformation Herald Pub. Association, Blackwood, N.J.*  
  • Barboza, G.E., Cantero, J.J. Nuñez, C., Pacciaroni, A. & Ariza Espinar, L. (2009). Medicinal Plants: A General Review and a Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Screening of the Native Argentine Flora. Kurtziana 34 (1-2): 7-365 
  • Barrett, B. (1994). Medicinal Plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Economic Botany. 48 (1): 8-20. 
  • Brandão, M.G.L., Cosenza, G.P., Assis Moreira, R. & Monte-Mor, R.L.M. (2006). Medicinal Plants and Other Botanical Products from the Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 16(3): 408-420. 
  • Duke, J.A. & Vasquez, R. (1994). Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.*  
  • Duke, J.A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 
  • Fátima Agra, M., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2007). Synopsis of the Plants Known as Medicinal and Poisonous in Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 17 (1): 114-140. 
  • Fátima Agra, M., Nurit Silva, K., Lima Diniz Basilio, I.J., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2008). Survey of Medicinal Plants used in the Region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 18 (3): 472-508. 
  • Giovannini, P. (2015). Medicinal Plants of the Achuar (jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: Ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 164 (1) 78-88.
  • Heinrich, M., Ankli, A., Frei, B., Weimann, C. & Sticher, O. (1998). Medicinal Plants in Mexico: Healers' Consensus and Cultural Importance. Social Science and Medicine. 47 (11): 1859-1871. 
  • Martínes, M. (1990). Las Plantas Medicinales de México, 6a ed. Eds. Botas, Mexico.*  
  • Ribeiro Silva, S., Buitron, X., Oliveira, L.H. de & Martins, M.V.M. (2001). Plantas Medicinales de Brasil. Aspectos Generales sobre Legislacion y Comercio. TRAFFIC America del Sur, Quito. 
  • Sanz-Biset, J., Campos-de-la-Cruz, J., Epiquién-Rivera, M.A. & Cañigueral, S. (2009). A First Survey on the Medicinal Plants of the Chazuta Valley (Peruvian Amazon). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122: 333-362. 

World/Non-specific

  • Anon. (1999). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva. 
  • Anon. (2004). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva. 
  • Anon. (2007). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 3. World Health Organization, Geneva. 
  • Anon. (2009). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol. 4. World Health Organization, Geneva. 
  • Bremness, L. (1996). Les Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales: Le guide visuel de plus de 700 especes vegetales a travers le monde. Bordas, Paris.*  
  • Desire, O. et al. (2010). Antispasmodic and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions and Bioactive Constituent Davidigenin Isolated from Mascarenhasia arborescens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130 (2): 320-328. [V6] #
  • Erhardt, W. von, Götz, E., Bödeker, N. & Seybold, S.; Coombes, A. (ed.) (2009). The Timber Press Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon; London.*  
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1983). Plants and Plant Products of Economic Importance. FAO Terminology Bulletin 25/1. Rome.*  
  • International Organization for Standardization. ISO Catalogue (viewed: 22/01/2009). 
  • ISO (2009). ISO 4720:2009. Essential oils -- Nomenclature (in English and French). (3rd edn, 2009-08-15). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. [V6]
  • Mabberley, D.J. (1996). The Plant-Book: A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press.
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (1)). 
  • Penso, G. & Proserpio, G. (1997). Index Plantarum Medicinalium Totius Mundi eorumque Synonymorum (2nd edn). OEMF, Milano.
  • Reader's Digest (1977). Secrets et Vertus des Plantes Mèdicinales. Selection du Reader's Digest.*  
  • Svendsen, M. et al. (2015). The Effect of Kiwifruit Consumption on Blood Pressure in Subjects with Moderately Elevated Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Study. Blood Press. 24(1):48-54.# [V6]
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (eds) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (2)). 
  • Wiersema, J.H. & León, B. (2013). World Economic Plants: a standard reference, 2nd Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida; London.*
  • Wiersema, J.H. & Leon, B. (1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Retrieved as GRIN report on 17/03/2015 using query 'Medizin = Alle Nutzungen'. [V6]
  • Wyk, B. van & Wink, M. (2004). Medicinal Plants of the World: An Illustrated Scientific Guide to Important Medicinal Plants and their Uses. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.  

Note: An asterick (*) indicates data kindly provided to us by Amparo Rodriguez.A hashtag (#) indicates a reference included to cover a specific species.