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Photos: de Kok, R.

Photos: de Kok, R.

Photo: Bramley, G.

Subfamily

III. Subfam. Ajugoideae Kostel. (1834).

Subfam. Teucrioideae (Dumort.) Caruel (1884).

Description

Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs (rarely annual or biennial), often aromatic or ill-scented; leaves opposite, sessile or petiolate, simple, margin entire, variously toothed or pinnately lobed; inflorescence an axillary cyme or paniculiform to spiciform thyrse, cymes often reduced to single flowers located in leaf axils or in bracteate racemes or heads; calyx actinomorphic to 2-lipped, accrescent or not, 5-lobed, lobes all similar or posterior lobe different from other 4, or posterior, lateral and anterior lobes differentiated as distinct types, calyx-tube often ± gibbous; corolla highly variable in colour, usually 1-lipped with anterior lip present, rarely 2-lipped, 5-lobed, anterior lobe much larger than others, usually concave; stamens 4, didynamous, exserted, filaments arched or straight, thecae divaricate, usually confluent at dehiscence; pollen operculate, usually with supratectal verrucae (rarely suprareticulate or partially psilate); ovary shallowly 4-lobed; stigma-lobes equal or unequal; disc absent to well-developed; nutlets obovoid to oblate or subglobose, usually reticulately ridged to alveolate, pubescent or glabrous, attachment-scar lateral, 0.3-0.8x as long as nutlet; endosperm usually present.  2n = 10-104 (most frequently 26 or 32).  About 250 species, subcosmopolitan but mostly extra-tropical, with centre of diversity in Mediterranean region.  A number of sections have been recognized (Briquet 1895-97; Kästner 1989; Navarro and El Oualidi 1997).

Distribution

Native to:

10 Northern Europe
11 Middle Europe
12 Southwestern Europe
13 Southeastern Europe
14 Eastern Europe
20 Northern Africa
21 Macaronesia
22 West Tropical Africa
24 Northeast Tropical Africa
25 East Tropical Africa
26 South Tropical Africa
27 Southern Africa
30 Siberia
31 Russian Far East
32 Middle Asia
33 Caucasus
34 Western Asia
35 Arabian Peninsula
36 China
38 Eastern Asia
40 Indian Subcontinent
41 Indo-China
42 Malesia
43 Papuasia
50 Australia
60 Southwestern Pacific
71 Western Canada
72 Eastern Canada
73 Northwestern U.S.A.
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.
79 Mexico
80 Central America
81 Caribbean
82 Northern South America
83 Western South America
84 Brazil
85 Southern South America

Introduced to:

51 New Zealand

Synonyms

Chamaedrys Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Polium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Scordium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Scorodonia Hill, Brit. Herb.: 372 (1756).

Iva Fabr., Enum.: 45 (1759), nom. illeg.

Melosmon Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).

Monipsis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).

Scorbion Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).

Trixago Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 85 (1837).

Poliodendron Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3: 106 (1845).

Monochilon Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 405 (1867).

Botrys Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 138 (1869).

Kinostemon Kudō, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 19: 1 (1929).

Publication

Teucrium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 562 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 247 (1754).

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Species found in RBG Kew living collections

1995-3339 Teucrium abutiloides L'Her. N QUIG sn F JOD SEED T3
1960-66704 Teucrium aroanium Orph.  KBCL  F 154 0204   :  154 0514 
1993-422 Teucrium asiaticum N GRJL   135 02   :  154 0502   :  155 02 TROUGH 1g1b
1976-3006 Teucrium chamaedrys L. N BSKX 043 F 154 0703 
1969-11891 Teucrium chamaedrys L.     111 11   :  111 seed 
1981-3202 Teucrium chamaedrys L. N INBB  F 412 04 
1982-8595 Teucrium chamaedrys L. N SNES  F 412 06 
1968-247 Teucrium cyprium Boiss. N BARC 1104 F ALP_N A1CSH C 1g1b
1941-4801 Teucrium cyprium Boiss. N DVSP   ALP_N A1CSH C 1g1b
1974-209 Teucrium divaricatum Siebold ex Boiss. N YOUM 220S F 154 0521 
1998-2755 Teucrium divaricatum Siebold ex Boiss. N RASU 23047  154 0518 
2002-1974 Teucrium flavum L.  MARS   412 05 
1970-904 Teucrium flavum L. N LIEG  F 154 0503 
1988-3099 Teucrium fruticans L.  COBL  F 106  
2008-36 Teucrium fruticans L. N AHAL 182  ARB_N  
1996-355 Teucrium granatense N HOLU   154 0513 
1995-3341 Teucrium heterophyllum L'Her. N QUIG sn F JOD T3 
2001-4599 Teucrium heterophyllum L'Her.  JBVC   TC 3 22  :  TRO_N 4 
1969-19302 Teucrium marum L.    F 154 0612 
2005-2528 Teucrium marum L. N REBG   ARB_N 28 
1986-887 Teucrium marum  L. N REBG   135 02   :  154 0521 
1973-19611 Teucrium marum L.    F 412 01 
1974-1178 Teucrium montanum L. N NANC  F 154 0611   :  154 0708   :  154 0711 
1967-9505 Teucrium musimonum Humbert N HRLE 3 F ALP_N AHF 1g1b
2008-794 Teucrium polium L. N JEBG   ARB_N  
1981-4139 Teucrium polium L. N STUB  F 154 0519 
1969-16375 Teucrium polium L.    P 135 02 
1978-4856 Teucrium polium L. subsp. capitatum (L.) Arcang. N COKX 124 F 154 0803 
1983-682 Teucrium pyrenaicum L.  RHSW  F 154 0614 
2001-1117 Teucrium scordium N PSNJ 2  WAK_S MP5 
1969-19380 Teucrium scorodonia var. crispifolium     157 24 
2005-2526 Teucrium subspinosum Pourr.ex Willd. N CAMP   ARB_N 28 
2005-2527 Teucrium subspinosum Pourr.ex Willd.  KBCL   ARB_N 28 
1977-227 Teucrium subspinosum inosum Pourr.ex Willd. N CAMP  P 135 02 
1960-66706 Teucrium subspinosum Pourr.ex Willd.  KBCL   135 02   :  154 0212   :  155 02 TROUGH 1g1b :  ALP_N AHF 1g1b  :  ALP_N TROUGH GRAHAM
2005-2525 Teucrium webbianum Boiss. N HMSX 1538  ARB_N 28 
1975-5533 Teucrium webbianum Boiss. N HMSX 1538 F 154 0502
 

Image resource

© Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew