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Photos: Bramley, G.

Subfamily

VI. Subfam. Lamioideae Harley (2003)

Subfam. Stachyoideae (Dumort.) Luerss. (1882); Briq. in Engl. & Prantl (1895) et auct. mult., p.p., typ. incl.

Subfam. Prasioideae (Benth.) Thomé (1889)

Subfam. Pogostemonoideae P.D. Cantino, Harley & Wagstaff in Harley & Reynolds (1992).

Description

Perennial or annual herbs or rarely small subshrubs, with simple and/or branched hairs, often strongly aromatic; leaves usually toothed, petiolate or rarely sessile; inflorescence thyrsoid or racemoid; flowers pedicellate, rarely sessile; bracts present or absent; bracteoles present or absent; calyx actinomorphic to weakly 2-lipped, 5-lobed, lobes equal or unequal (3/2), often spinose, tube with throat often barbate; corolla strongly 2-lipped, 4-lobed (1/3), posterior lip long, hooded or sometimes almost flat, externally pubescent, anterior lip with median lobe usually much larger than lateral lobes, corolla-tube annulate or rarely exannulate; stamens not exserted from corolla, thecae ± distinct, usually divaricate, rarely subparallel to parallel; stigma-lobes subequal or slightly unequal; nutlets obovoid to oblong, rarely flattened trigonous, rounded or sometimes winged at apex.  2n =10, 16, 18, 24, 30, 32, 34, 48, 64, 66, 68, 80, 102.  About 300 spp., various habitats, cosmopolitan, except for Australia and New Zealand.  Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals.  Stachys affinis Bunge is cultivated for its edible, subterranean tubers.  A cladistic analysis by Lindquist and Albert (2002) suggests that Betonica and other Stachys may have different origins.

Distribution

Native to:

10 Northern Europe
11 Middle Europe
12 Southwestern Europe
13 Southeastern Europe
14 Eastern Europe
20 Northern Africa
21 Macaronesia
22 West Tropical Africa
23 West-Central Tropical Africa
24 Northeast Tropical Africa
25 East Tropical Africa
26 South Tropical Africa
27 Southern Africa
29 Western Indian Ocean
30 Siberia
31 Russian Far East
32 Middle Asia
33 Caucasus
34 Western Asia
35 Arabian Peninsula
36 China
37 Mongolia
38 Eastern Asia
40 Indian Subcontinent
42 Malesia
43 Papuasia
70 Subarctic America
71 Western Canada
72 Eastern Canada
73 Northwestern U.S.A.
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.
79 Mexico
80 Central America
81 Caribbean
82 Northern South America
83 Western South America
84 Brazil
85 Southern South America

Introduced to:

28 Middle Atlantic Ocean
51 New Zealand
60 Southwestern Pacific
63 North-Central Pacific

Doubtfully present in:

41 Indo-China

Synonyms

Betonica L., Sp. Pl.: 573 (1753).

Galeopsis Hill, Brit. Herb.: 359 (1756), nom. illeg.

Tetrahit Gérard (1761).

Zietenia Gled., Syst. Pl. Stamin. Situ: 185 (1764).

Trixago Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 1: 101 (1768).

Bonamya Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 316 (1790), opus utique oppr.

Galeopsis Moench, Methodus: 397 (1794), nom. illeg.

Eriostomum Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 105 (1809).

Tetrahitum Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 103 (1809).

Eriostemum Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 588 (1840).

Olisia Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 9: 166 (1840).

Ortostachys Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 136 (1869).

Trixella Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 135 (1869).

Aspasia E.Mey. ex Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1: 295 (1873).

Stachyus St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 109 (1880).

Lamiostachys Krestovsk., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 91: 1258 (2006).

Menitskia (Krestovsk.) Krestovsk., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 91: 1893 (2006).

Publication

Stachys L., Sp. Pl. 2: 580 (1753); Bhattacharjee, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 38: 65-96 (1980).

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Species found in RBG Kew living collections

1973-10062 Stachys     310  
2000-2064 Stachys alpina L.  ALBV   154 0618 
2002-3353 Stachys arvensis L. N BSBI   WAK_S MP8   :  WAK_S S/BANK 
2008-740 Stachys balansae N GEAG   157 01 
1977-3305 Stachys bizensis Schweinf. N RSHX 5026 P 155 02 
1996-1421 Stachys byzantina 'Big Ears'  MERG   751 HPG-A   :  751 HPG-D 
1998-1970 Stachys byzantina 'Cotton Boll'  CAGA   157 79 
2001-1233 Stachys byzantina 'Cotton Boll'  PERH   484  
2003-26 Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet'  CHAT   135 02   :  151 07 
1995-1880 Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet'  BRPL   751 HPG-H 
1998-626 Stachys byzantina K.Koch  POTS   157 19 
1999-1147 Stachys byzantina K.Koch  CHLS  F 154 0513 
1969-34728 Stachys byzantina K.Koch  BOHI  F 751 HPG-B   :  751 HPG-E 
2004-2738 Stachys byzantina K.Koch  LANP   135 05 
2006-524 Stachys candida  HYTH   154 0210 
1969-19358 Stachys citrina  CAMB   154 0501   :  154 0706 
1969-19359 Stachys corsica Pers.    F ALP_H 04 
1997-4676 Stachys cretica L. N SANS  F 154 0518 
1995-3731 Stachys emodi Hedge N EPAK 129 F 154 0809 
1972-2684 Stachys germanica L.  WUZL  F 154 0606   :  157 21 
1973-1028 Stachys grandiflora 'Superba'  POLR   751 HPG-H 
1929-6301 Stachys hirta  HARU   157 22 
1977-1040 Stachys lanata L.  CHAT  F 135 02 
1997-7312 Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. N HOLU 97427 F 154 0510 
1969-19362 Stachys longifolia Benth.    F 154 0705 
2005-1185 Stachys macrantha 'Grandiflora'  MADN   126  
2001-1960 Stachys macrantha 'Superba'  NHNU   135 05 
1940-2511 Stachys macrantha (K.Koch) Stearn  CAMB  F 155 04   :  155 06 
2003-3763 Stachys macrantha (K.Koch) Stearn  MADN   126 01 
1986-2728 Stachys nivea N BRMW 10020  751 HPG-B   :  WAK_N SP 
1994-2762 Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis.     111 11   :  111 seed 
1936-75401 Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. N CAMB  F 154 0605 
2002-1211 Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. N WAKH   WAK_S MP4   :  WAK_S S/BANK 
1970-683 Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. N CRJS  F 154 0617 
1969-19268 Stachys officinalis f. rosea     157 21 
1969-16275 Stachys olympica Poir.    F 154 0518 
2001-4269 Stachys recta L. N HLBG  F 154 0901 
1969-51503 Stachys saxicola Coss.    P ALP_H 04   :  ALP_N PROP SEED 1g1b
1967-22314 Stachys tmolea Boiss N ALCW 1916 F 154 0501   :  154 0705 

Image resource

© Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew