VII. Subfam. Nepetoideae (Dumort.) Luerss. (1882).

VII. 2. Tribe Mentheae Dumort. (1827).

VII. 2. B. Subtribe Menthinae (Dumort.) Endl. (1838).


Rhizomatous perennial herbs, strongly aromatic, with simple hairs; leaves sessile or short-petiolate, ovate to lanceolate, elliptical or linear, variously toothed or entire; inflorescence of verticillasters, or capitate, or corymbiform, composed of compact or loose, terminal and upper-axillary glomerules (paired cymes); calyx actinomorphic to zygomorphic, not accrescent, cylindrical to tubular-campanulate, 10-13-nerved, 5-lobed, lobes triangular to ovate, lanceolate or aristate, all similar or anterior 2 more deeply cleft than posterior 3, throat glabrous; corolla usually white to lavender with purple spots, 2-lipped, posterior lip entire or emarginate, anterior lip 3-lobed, tube straight; stamens 4, didynamous or subequal, exserted or included, filaments glabrous, thecae parallel, separate at dehiscence; stigma-lobes unequal to subequal (rarely equal); disc symmetrical; nutlets ovoid to obloid, trigonal, smooth or rugose, glabrous or pubescent.  2n = 36, 38, 40, 72, 76, 78, 80, c. 108, 120 (x = 18, 19, 20).  Seventeen to 21 species < /STRONG >, SE Canada, E and central United States, one disjunct species in California; centre of diversity in SE U.S.  Most species occur in disturbed sites, naturally open habitats or forest edges.


Native to:

72 Eastern Canada
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.


Furera Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 103 (1763).

Koellia Moench, Methodus: 407 (1794).

Brachystemum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 5 (1803).

Tullia Leavenw., Amer. J. Sci. Arts 20: 343 (1830).

Pycnanthes Raf., New Fl. 4: 95 (1838).


Pycnanthemum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 7 (1803), nom. cons; Grant & Epling, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 20: 195-240 (1943), rev.


Image resource

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew