Photo: de Kok, R.


III. Subfam. Ajugoideae Kostel. (1834).

Subfam. Teucrioideae (Dumort.) Caruel (1884).


Lianas, shrubs, and small trees; leaves opposite, occasionally alternate or whorled, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire or rarely sinuate; inflorescence a lax, axillary or cauliflorous cyme or paniculiform or racemoid thyrse; calyx actinomorphic, not accrescent, 4-5-lobed (rarely truncate) in bud, remaining closed in some species until torn irregularly into 1-5 lobes by corolla elongation, opening normally in others; corolla white to yellow or orange, weakly zygomorphic to 2-lipped, 4-5-lobed, lobes highly variable in shape, anterior lobe often widened distally and emarginate, fimbriate or galeate; stamens usually 2 (the posterior or rarely the anterior pair reduced to staminodes), rarely 4, usually exserted, filaments straight or curved, thecae parallel, separate at dehiscence; pollen with supratectal spinules; ovary shallowly 4-lobed; stigma-lobes very short, equal; disc well developed; fruit drupaceous, the lobes elongating greatly, eventually separating into 4 fleshy, 1-seeded mericarps (often fewer by abortion) with apex rounded, mericarp attachment-scar basal; endosperm absent.  Twenty-one species of South Pacific islands (mostly New Caledonia).


Native to:

60 Southwestern Pacific


Oncoma Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4(2): 11 (1827).

Maoutia Montrouz., Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Lett. 10: 241 (1860).

Borya Montrouz. ex Beauvis., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 26: 68 (1901). 


Oxera Labill., Sertum austro-caledonicum 23 (1824); de Kok & Mabberley, Kew Bull. 54: 257-264, 265-300 (1999).


Image resource

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew