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Subfamily

VII. Subfam. Nepetoideae (Dumort.) Luerss. (1882).

VII. 2. Tribe Mentheae Dumort. (1827).

VII. 2. B. Subtribe Menthinae (Dumort.) Endl. (1838).

Description

Rhizomatous perennial herbs or taprooted annuals or biennials (rarely low shrubs), aromatic, with simple hairs; leaves petiolate to subsessile, ovate to lanceolate, elliptic or linear, serrate to denticulate (rarely entire); inflorescence terminal or in verticillasters, of involucrate glomerules; bracts sometimes brightly colored; flowers subsessile; bracteoles absent; calyx actinomorphic, not accrescent, cylindrical, 13-15-nerved, 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate to subulate or aristate, often setose, throat usually hairy; corolla white to purple, red, or yellow, 2-lipped, posterior lip narrow, concave, entire or bifid, sometimes apically bearded, anterior lip 3-lobed, median lobe longest, tube straight or curved, corolla in bud falcate; stamens 2 fertile (posterior pair reduced to staminodes or absent), included or slightly exserted, filaments usually pubescent, anthers usually lightly fused (coherent but easily separated), thecae divaricate, separate at dehiscence; stigma-lobes usually unequal; disc symmetrical; nutlets ovoid to obloid, obscurely trigonal, smooth, glabrous.  2n = 18, 22, 36 (rarely 24, 32, 34).  About 20 species, S Canada to S Mexico; some widely grown as ornamentals.  Two subgenera are recognized (McClintock and Epling 1942; Scora 1967): Glomerules usually solitary (rarely two), terminal; upper lip of corolla straight to only slightly arcuate; stamens exserted; rhizomatous perennial herbs: subgenus Monarda.  Glomerules several, in verticillasters; upper lip of corolla strongly arcuate; stamens usually included; taprooted annuals, biennials, short-lived perennials, or low shrubs: subgenus Cheilyctis (Raf.) E. M. McClint. and Epling.

Distribution

Native to:

71 Western Canada
72 Eastern Canada
73 Northwestern U.S.A.
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.
79 Mexico

Synonyms

Cheilyctis Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 726 (1835).

Cheilyctis (Raf.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 9: 163 (1838).

Publication

Monarda L., Sp. Pl. 1: 22 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 14 (1754); Scora, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 41: 1-59 (1967), rev.

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Species found in RBG Kew living collections

1997-6057 Monarda 'Croftway Pink'  BLON   751 HPG-C 
1994-1942 Monarda 'Prarienacht'  RHSW   751 HPG-A 
1998-629 Monarda citriodora Cerv.ex Lag.  POTS   157 18 
1995-1175 Monarda didyma 'Cambridge Scarlet'  SODN   755 SB-A 
1990-1477 Monarda fistulosa L. N HOAR  F 111 12   :  111 21   :  111 SEED 
1995-45 Monarda menthiifolia Graham N WLKR   154 0307
 

Image resource

© Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew