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Subfamily

VI. Subfam. Lamioideae Harley (2003)

Subfam. Stachyoideae (Dumort.) Luerss. (1882); Briq. in Engl. & Prantl (1895) et auct. mult., p.p., typ. incl.

Subfam. Prasioideae (Benth.) Thomé (1889)

Subfam. Pogostemonoideae P.D. Cantino, Harley & Wagstaff in Harley & Reynolds (1992).

Description

Annual herbs with simple, often rigid hairs; leaves simple; inflorescence thyrsoid; bracteoles spiny; calyx 5-lobed, lobes equal or subequal, spiny; corolla strongly 2-lipped, 4-lobed (1/3), purple, yellow or white, posterior lip long, hooded, anterior lip with two conical protuberances near base; stamens not exserted from corolla, thecae distinct, apparently dehiscing by 2 valves, upper valve smaller, fimbriate; stigma-lobes subequal; nutlets rounded at apex, glabrous.  2n = 16, (30), 32.  About ten spp., mainly in open, disturbed habitats and lake shores, mainly Europe and W Asia, introduced to other temperate regions.

Distribution

Native to:

10 Northern Europe
11 Middle Europe
12 Southwestern Europe
13 Southeastern Europe
14 Eastern Europe
30 Siberia
31 Russian Far East
32 Middle Asia
33 Caucasus
34 Western Asia
36 China
37 Mongolia
38 Eastern Asia
40 Indian Subcontinent
51 New Zealand

Introduced to:

70 Subarctic America
71 Western Canada
72 Eastern Canada
73 Northwestern U.S.A.
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.

Synonyms

Cannabinastrum Heist. ex Fabr. (1759), nom nud. ?

Tetrahit Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 190 (1763).,  (1795) non Gérard.

Ladanum Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 82 (1782), opus utique oppr., (1891) non Spach.

Tetraith Bubani, Fl. Pyren. 1: 436 (1897).

Dalanum Dostál, Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 10 (1984).

Ladanella Pouzar & Slavíková, Cas. Nár. Muz. Rada Prír. 169: 42 (2000).

Publication

Galeopsis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 579 (1753); Briq., Mem. Cour. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg. 52: 1 (1893); Müntzing, Hereditas 13: 185-341 (1930).

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© Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew