Dracocephalum komarovii Lipsky

Photo S. Landrein

Dracocephalum diversifolium Rupr.

Photo S. Landrein

Dracocephalum imberbe Bge.

Photo J. Osbourne

Dracocephalum bipinnatum Rupr.

Photo S. Landrein


VII. Subfam. Nepetoideae (Dumort.) Luerss. (1882).

VII. 2. Tribe Mentheae Dumort. (1827).

VII. 2. C. Subtribe Nepetinae Coss. & Germ. (1845).


Herbs, annual or perennial, or subshrubs, aromatic; leaves entire, dentate or pinnatisect; inflorescence thyrsoid, terminal, usually condensed, spike-like or capitate, cymes sessile or peduncles very short; bracts entire or lobed, usually aristate, sometimes coloured or leaf-like; bracteoles often similar to bracts but smaller, or subulate, often aristately toothed; calyx tubular to campanulate, straight or slightly curved, 2-lipped, 5-lobed (3/2), lobes often aristate, upper lip with lobes equal or median lobe clearly larger than laterals, lower lip with lobes shorter, sinuses between lobes with swollen folds at base, throat glabrous within; corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed (2/3), blue to violet, pink or white, posterior lip straight or slightly concave, subentire or bifid, anterior lip with median lobe largest, tube gradually or abruptly widening from base; stamens included under posterior corolla-lip, rarely exserted, parallel, thecae pilose or glabrous, divergent at 180; stigma-lobes subequal; disc 4-lobed; nutlets ovoid-oblong, weakly trigonous, apically truncate-rounded or slightly flattened, smooth, mucilaginous or not; areole arcuate. 2n = 10, 12, 14, 18, 20, 36, 72.  About 70 species.  Usually montane, Eurasia, N Africa (one species), N America (one species).  Some species medicinal, ornamental or bee plants.  Three subgenera after Budantzev (1987): Dracocephalum (stamens included, anthers glabrous - 7 sections), Fedtschenkiella (Kudr.) Schischk. (stamens exserted, anthers glabrous), Ruyschiana (Mill.) Briq. (stamens included, anthers pubescent).


Native to:

10 Northern Europe
11 Middle Europe
12 Southwestern Europe
13 Southeastern Europe
14 Eastern Europe
20 Northern Africa
30 Siberia
31 Russian Far East
32 Middle Asia
33 Caucasus
34 Western Asia
36 China
37 Mongolia
38 Eastern Asia
40 Indian Subcontinent
41 Indo-China
70 Subarctic America
71 Western Canada
72 Eastern Canada
73 Northwestern U.S.A.
74 North-Central U.S.A.
75 Northeastern U.S.A.
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.
79 Mexico

Introduced to:

21 Macaronesia


Ruyschiana Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Moldavica Fabr., Enum.: 55 (1759).

Ruyschia Fabr., Enum.: 55 (1759).

Cephaloma Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 314 (1790), opus utique oppr.

Dracontocephalium Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 132 (1844).

Fedtschenkiella Kudr., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Uzbekistansk. Fil. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 4: 3 (1941).


Dracocephalum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 594 (1753); Budantzev, Bot. Zhurn. 72, 2: 260-267 (1987), rev.


Species found in RBG Kew living collections

1982-3091 Dracocephalum argunense Fisch.ex Link  JAGS  F 154  
2000-4410 Dracocephalum forrestii  PRAG   ALP_N OB

Image resource

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew