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Photos: Bramley, G.

Photos: Bramley, G.

Subfamily

III. Subfam. Ajugoideae Kostel. (1834).

Subfam. Teucrioideae (Dumort.) Caruel (1884).

Description

Trees, lianas, shrubs, subshrubs and rarely perennial or annual herbs, often ill-scented; leaves opposite (rarely alternate or whorled), usually petiolate, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed; inflorescence a terminal thyrse (usually lax, paniculiform or corymboid, less often capitate) or axillary cyme (occasionally reduced to solitary flower); flowers often resupinate; calyx usually actinomorphic, usually accrescent, often showy, 5-lobed (rarely 2-4-lobed or truncate); corolla variable in colour, actinomorphic to subactinomorphic, usually hypocrateriform, or 1-lipped with anterior lip present, but usually facing upward due to resupination, 5-lobed, anterior lobe sometimes slightly larger than others, corolla in bud symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 4, subequal to didynamous, exserted, filaments straight or arched (usually upward), anthers versatile, thecae parallel, separate at dehiscence; pollen tricolpate (rarely 6-pantocolpate), with supratectal spinules, columellae branched to granular; ovary unlobed to shallowly 4-lobed; stigma-lobes equal or subequal; disc usually poorly developed to absent; fruit drupaceous with four 1-seeded pyrenes or a schizocarp with four fleshy (rarely dry), 1-seeded mericarps (or rarely two 2-seeded mericarps); endosperm absent. 2n = 22-108 (most frequently 48 or 52; x = 12, 13). Four hundred to 500 species , mostly paleotropical but some neotropical and a few temperate; many used as ornamentals.

Distribution

Native to:

20 Northern Africa
22 West Tropical Africa
23 West-Central Tropical Africa
24 Northeast Tropical Africa
25 East Tropical Africa
26 South Tropical Africa
27 Southern Africa
29 Western Indian Ocean
36 China
38 Eastern Asia
40 Indian Subcontinent
41 Indo-China
42 Malesia
43 Papuasia
50 Australia
60 Southwestern Pacific
62 Northwestern Pacific
76 Southwestern U.S.A.
77 South-Central U.S.A.
78 Southeastern U.S.A.
79 Mexico
80 Central America
81 Caribbean
82 Northern South America
83 Western South America
84 Brazil
85 Southern South America

Introduced to:

51 New Zealand

Present, but doubtfully native in:

28 Middle Atlantic Ocean
61 South-Central Pacific
63 North-Central Pacific

Synonyms

Ovieda L., Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753).

Siphonanthus L., Sp. Pl.: 109 (1753)., (1754)

Douglassia Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Cryptanthus Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa: 215 (1757).

Volkameria Heist. ex Fabr., Enum.: 55 (1759)., (1754).

Valdia Boehm., Defin. Gen. Pl.: 39 (1760).

Marurang Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 226 (1763).

Bellevalia Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat.: 198 (1777), nom. illeg.

Duglassia Houst., Reliq. Houstoun.: 13 (1781).

Montalbania Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 273 (1790), opus utique oppr.

Volkmannia Jacq., Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 48 (1798).

Agricolaea Schrank, Denkschr. Königl. Akad. Wiss. München 1808: 98 (1808).

Torreya Spreng., Neue Entd. 2: 121 (1821), nom. illeg.

Cornacchinia Savi, Mem. Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Sci. 21: 184 (1837).

Egena Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 85 (1837).

Adelosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 176 (1849).

Tetraclea A.Gray, Amer. J. Sci. Arts, II, 16: 98 (1853).

Cleianthus Lour. ex B.A.Gomes, Mem. Acad. Real Sci. Lisboa, 2 Cl. Sci. Moraes, n.s., 4(1): 28 (1868).

Siphoboea Baill., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 722 (1888).

Archboldia E.Beer & H.J.Lam, Blumea 2: 31 (1936).

Publication

Clerodendrum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753); L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 285 (1754); B. Thomas, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68: 1-98 (1936).

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Species found in RBG Kew living collections

1999-1039 Clerodendrum N SICH 1734  342 03 
1999-410 Clerodendrum N SICH 1734  840 01 
1999-411 Clerodendrum N SICH 1734  840 01 
1969-31433 Clerodendrum bungei Steud.    F 757 SB-H 
2006-1421 Clerodendrum bungei Steud.  LLOY   134 03 
1973-12319 Clerodendrum bungei Steud.    F TH 29 BAY 38
1999-1086 Clerodendrum bungei Steud. N SICH 1248 F 416 01 
1995-4111 Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp.  READ  F JOD T3 BENCH3
2008-1411 Clerodendrum glabrum E.Mey.  KRST   TRO_N SEED 
1973-12316 Clerodendrum inerme     PH 4 
1969-17698 Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke    F PH 15 
1973-12317 Clerodendrum nutans Wall.    F PH 3 
1965-41801 Clerodendrum schweinfurthii Gurke  CAMB  F PH 16 
1965-41802 Clerodendrum schweinfurthii Gurke  CAMB  F TC 1 16  :  TEM_N 28   :  TH 19   :  TH 21   :  TRO_N SEED 
1988-1774 Clerodendrum speciosissimum Hort.  OXFD  F PH 5   :  TRO_N SEED   :  W_LIL  
1969-17169 Clerodendrum splendens G.Don    F PH 17 
1973-12310 Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f. 'Variegatum'    F PH 1 B TROUGH
1973-12312 Clerodendrum thomsoniae var. balfouri     PH 17 CLIMBER-WIRES
1997-6404 Clerodendrum thomsoniae var. balfouri     TC 1 19
1996-4897 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SICH 1734 F 840 01 
1997-7144 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N EHOK 158  186 01 
2005-103 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N CHAR   166 00 
2004-97 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N EHOK 158  134 01 
2005-1113 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SADO 6  335 04 
2005-1114 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SADO 6  416 01 
2005-1115 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SADO 119 F 335 05 
2005-1118 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SADO 139 F 342 03 
1999-4102 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SOKU 72  ARB_N  
1999-4376 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N CHAR   ARB_N 02 
2003-3759 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N SADO 6  ARB_N F05   :  ARB_N SB04 01
1989-3899 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. N MBMX 73  870 02 
1998-2267 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb.  CEDR   484  
1969-30673 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb.     738  
2000-2095 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. fargesii (Dode) Rehder N SICH 1734 F 342 03 
1999-551 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. fargesii (Dode) Rehder N SICH 1734 F 167 03 
1992-335 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. fargesii (Dode) Rehder     481 02 
1973-16655 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. fargesii (Dode) Rehder     107 02 
1999-1043 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. trichotomum N SICH 1734 F 416 01 
1996-5014 Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb. var. trichotomum N SICH 1734 F 416 04 
2008-1141 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 119  870 01 
2005-1116 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 119  416 03 
2005-1117 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 161  335 04 
2003-3930 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 161  416 04 
2005-1119 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 139  416 02 
2003-3947 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 139  ARB_N F06   :  ARB_N SB04 01
2003-3958 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 183  ARB_N  
2003-3896 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 119  ARB_N F06   :  ARB_N SB04 01
2007-433 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 139  870 01 
2007-434 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 139  870 01 
2006-305 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 161  ARB_N  
2006-321 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 139  870 01 
2006-323 Clerodendrum trichotomum f. white-ibis N SADO 119  870 01 

Image resource

© Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew