GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Triticum aestivum

HABIT Annual; caespitose. Culms 60–100 cm long. Culm-internodes hollow. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pubescent. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades 10–60 cm long; 10–15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pubescent.

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes.

Racemes 1; single; linear, or oblong; bilateral; 5–18 cm long. Rhachis tough; flattened; glabrous on surface; ciliate on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes oblong; 2–3 mm long.

Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2–4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 10–15 mm long; 9–18 mm wide; persistent on plant. Rhachilla internodes 1–1.2 mm long.

GLUMES Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 6–11 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 2-keeled; keeled above; winged on keel; winged above; 5–9 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous, or villous. Lower glume apex with a unilateral tooth; truncate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 0–40 mm long. Upper glume ovate; 6–11 mm long; 0.5–0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 2-keeled; keeled above; 5–9 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins divergent at apex. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent, or villous. Upper glume apex with a unilateral tooth; truncate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 0–40 mm long.

FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; 12–15 mm long; chartaceous; keeled; keeled above; 5–9 -veined. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0–150 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; conspicuously winged; ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

FLOWER Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; sulcate on hilar side; 5–7 mm long; hairy at apex. Hilum linear.

DISTRIBUTION Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern and north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.

NOTES Triticeae. Fl Iran.

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.