GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Phyllostachys nigra

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph. Culms erect; 300–700 cm long; 20–40 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes semiterete; hollow; 4–30 cm long; black; distally pubescent (when young). Culm-nodes with distinct supra-nodal ridge. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement two; in a horizontal line; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; chartaceous; pubescent; with dark brown hairs; auriculate; setose on shoulders. Culm-sheath blade triangular; wrinkled. Leaves cauline; 2–3 per branch. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose; dark. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 6–12 cm long; 10–15 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; fasciculate; dense; with spathaceous subtending bracts; bracts 10–20 mm long; without axillary buds at base of spikelet; with ultimate bract subtending a compact bracteolate fascicle of spikelets; prophyllate below lateral spikelets.

Fertile spikelets sessile.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1–4 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 18–25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; shorter than spikelet. Upper glume oblong; 0.6–0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7–9 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliolate. Upper glume margins ciliolate. Upper glume apex acute.

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate; 19 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 9 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.5–0.6 length of lemma; chartaceous; 6 -veined. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back and on flanks.

FLOWER Lodicules 3; 3.5 mm long; veined; ciliate. Anthers 3; 7 mm long. Stigmas 3. Ovary umbonate.

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.

DISTRIBUTION Africa: western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Caucasus, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: Indo-China. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central.

NOTES Arundinarieae. Lin.

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.