GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora


W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Echinochloa frumentacea

HABIT Annual. Culms erect; robust; 30–150 cm long. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule absent. Leaf-blades 10–30 cm long; 5–20 mm wide.

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes.

Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; closely spaced (inflorescence lanceolate); unilateral; 1–3 cm long; simple. Central inflorescence axis 6–20 cm long. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing crowded; 4–6 -rowed.

Spikelets in pairs, or clustered at each node. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2–4 in the cluster.

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or orbicular; dorsally compressed; compressed slightly; gibbous; acuminate; 2.5–3.5 mm long; persistent on plant.

GLUMES Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.3–0.4 length of spikelet; membranous; pallid, or yellow; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent, or hispid. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; membranous; pallid, or yellow; without keels; 3–7 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent, or hispid. Upper glume apex cuspidate.

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5–7 -veined; pubescent, or hispid; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2–3 mm long; indurate; much thinner above; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea reflexed at apex; indurate.

FLOWER Anthers 3.

FRUIT Caryopsis exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity.

DISTRIBUTION Africa: east tropical and southern tropical. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China. Australasia: Australia. South America: southern South America.

NOTES Paniceae. FTEA.

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 3rd February 2016.