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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson
© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
HABIT Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms geniculately ascending; 1500–2000 cm long; 40–100 mm diam.; woody; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete; thin-walled. Lateral branches dendroid. Bud complement 1. Branch complement three, or several; in a clump; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; hispid; with dark brown hairs; auriculate; ciliate on shoulders. Culm-sheath ligule 5–8 mm high. Culm-sheath blade ovate; 5–15 cm long; pubescent; acute. Leaves 8–9 per branch. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Collar with external ligule. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded; with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 15–30 cm long; 18–45 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; hardened.
INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in untidy tufts; 1–3 cm long; dense; with spathaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; prophyllate below lateral spikelets; leafy between clusters.
FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 4–12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10–20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite.
GLUMES Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 0.7–0.8 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume ovate; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels.
FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; 9–11 mm long; without keel; 11–15 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 6 -veined. Palea keels wingless; ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
FLOWER Lodicules 3; membranous; ciliate. Anthers 6; 5 mm long. Stigmas 2–3. Ovary umbonate.
FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
DISTRIBUTION Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, and Brazil.
NOTES Bambuseae. Pohl.
Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 16th November 2012.