GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Vulpia

HABIT Annual (24), or perennial (2). Culms erect (18/20), or geniculately ascending (10/20), or decumbent (9/20); slender (1/1); 3–27–115 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (6), or linear (20); firm, or flaccid (5).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (20), or composed of racemes (8); exserted (25), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5).

Panicle open (6/20), or contracted (15/20), or spiciform (1/20). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (19/20), or deciduous spikelet clusters (1/20).

Racemes single (8/8); linear (6/8), or oblong (2/8), or ovate (2/8); unilateral (7/7). Rhachis angular (1/2), or semiterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (2/2); 2 -rowed (1/1).

Spikelets appressed (1/4), or pectinate (3/4); solitary (25), or in pairs (1), or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (25); 3 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free (24/25), or fused to each other (1/25); linear (5/19), or oblong (10/19), or clavate (4/19), or cuneate (1/19); tip rectangular (2/4), or widened (2/4).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1–4–17 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (17), or obovate (2), or cuneate (23); laterally compressed; 1–8.682–21 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (25); deciduous with the pedicel (1/2), or in a cluster with fused pedicels (1/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (25/25). Rhachilla internodes definite (25/25). Floret callus brief (24), or evident (1), or elongated (1); glabrous (5/8), or pubescent (2/8), or pilose (1/8); obtuse (23), or acute (2), or pungent (1).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (25/25); shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (18), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (7), or firmer than fertile lemma (1); parallel to lemmas (25), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (15), or lanceolate (8), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); 0.02–0.3723–0.8 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (24), or chartaceous (1); without keels (17), or 1-keeled (9); 0 -veined (5), or 1 -veined (22), or 3 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (24), or distinct (2). Lower glume surface smooth (25), or scabrous (2); without pits; glabrous, or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/25), or acute (17/25), or acuminate (5/25), or attenuate (2/25); muticous (25), or mucronate (1), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (5), or lanceolate (23), or oblong (1); 0.3–0.8935–1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (19), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (3); with undifferentiated margins (24), or membranous margins (2); without keels (14), or 1-keeled (12); 1 -veined (8/25), or 2 -veined (4/25), or 3 -veined (21/25), or 4–5 -veined (1/25). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (22/23), or ribbed (1/23). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or scabrous (3); glabrous, or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (11), or attenuate (7); muticous (16), or mucronate (1), or awned (10); 1 -awned (10/10).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (24), or elliptic (1), or ovate (1); membranous (4), or chartaceous (21), or coriaceous (1); without keel (22), or keeled (4); wingless; 3–4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness, or scaberulous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (18), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (4); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (24), or pubescent (10). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliate (1). Lemma apex acute (2), or acuminate (14), or attenuate (10); muticous (2), or mucronate (1), or awned (25); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn 0.9–1.75–3 length of lemma. Palea 0.6–0.9594–1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (22/22). Palea keels smooth (14), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (5); eciliate (25), or ciliolate (1). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (24), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (21), or distinct from fertile (7); 0–1 in number (2/7), or 2 in number (4/7), or 3 in number (6/7), or 4 in number (3/7), or 5–8 in number (1/7); barren (5/5); separate (3/7), or in a clump (4/7); linear (4/5), or lanceolate (1/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (2/7), or awned (5/7).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (1/1). Anthers 1 (13/24), or 2 (7/24), or 3 (17/24). Ovary glabrous (16/21), or pubescent on apex (5/21).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (24/24); linear (16/18), or fusiform (2/18); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1–0.1875–0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (1/19), or linear (18/19); 0.33–0.749–1 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Europe (15), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (13), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (6), or Pacific (2), or North America (5), or South America (6), or Antarctica (2).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.