GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Setaria

HABIT Annual (37), or perennial (66). Rhizomes absent (85), or short (14), or elongated (6). Stolons absent (102), or present (4). Culms erect (50/78), or geniculately ascending (52/78), or decumbent (5/78), or rambling (2/78), or leaning (1/78), or scandent (1/78); robust (13/21), or of moderate stature (1/21), or slender (3/21), or weak (4/21); 4–85.71–400 cm long; firm (101), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (8/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/8), or channelled (2/8), or elliptical in section (6/8). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (14/30), or sparse (11/30), or ample (13/30), or fastigiate (1/30). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (26), or a fringe of hairs (74), or absent (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (97), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1), or with a false petiole (10). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear (90), or lanceolate (28), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (102), or coriaceous (1); stiff (10), or firm (86), or flaccid (8). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (6/6). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (6/6). Leaf-blade apex muticous (102), or pungent (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (101), or composed of racemes (2); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3).

Panicle open (28/101), or contracted (11/101), or spiciform (64/101). Primary panicle branches not whorled (84/85), or whorled at most nodes (2/85); without sterile bristles (4/85), or sterile at the tips (81/85).

Racemes borne along a central axis (2/2); unilateral (1/1). Rhachis angular (1/1); terminating in a barren extension (2/2); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing 2 -rowed (1/1).

Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (7/102), or in pairs (1/102), or subtended by an involucre (97/102). Fertile spikelets sessile (35/100), or sessile and pedicelled (2/100), or pedicelled (64/100); 1 in the cluster (87/97), or 2 in the cluster (15/97), or 3 in the cluster (16/97), or 4 in the cluster (9/97), or 5 in the cluster (6/97), or 6 in the cluster (5/97), or 7–8 in the cluster (3/97), or 9 in the cluster (1/97). Involucre composed of bristles (97/97). Involucral bristles persistent (97/97); 0–4–15 in principal whorl; flexible (71/78), or rigid (7/78); obtuse (1/97), or attenuate (96/97). Pedicels oblong (47/56), or reduced to a stump (9/56); tip discoid (1/7), or cupuliform (6/7).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (38), or oblong (8), or ovate (57), or orbicular (13), or obovate (4); of unremarkable solid shape (102), or hemispherical (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); symmetrical (70), or gibbous (32), or plano-convex (1); 1.2–2.526–4.6 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (102). Floret callus glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2).

GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (89), or reaching apex of florets (25), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (93), or orbicular (12), or oblate (1); clasping (9/9); hyaline (5), or membranous (99); without keels; 0 -veined (1/99), or 1 -veined (10/99), or 2 -veined (6/99), or 3 -veined (83/99), or 4 -veined (29/99), or 5 -veined (38/99), or 6 -veined (2/99), or 7 -veined (3/99). Lower glume lateral veins absent (6), or obscure (1), or distinct (96), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex truncate (7/101), or obtuse (33/101), or acute (72/101), or acuminate (3/101), or cuspidate (1/101); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Upper glume elliptic (17), or oblong (3), or ovate (84), or orbicular (2); not gibbous (97), or gibbous (6); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (102); with undifferentiated margins (102), or chartaceous margins (1); without keels (102), or 1-keeled (1); 3–6–11 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (101), or scabrous (2); glabrous (102), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/99), or obtuse (33/99), or acute (62/99), or acuminate (2/99), or cuspidate (5/99); muticous (100), or mucronate (3).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (33), or barren (81); with palea (90), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (19/102), or oblong (4/102), or ovate (79/102); 1–1.062–1.2 length of fertile lemma; membranous (99), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (1); 3–4 -veined (2/98), or 5 -veined (90/98), or 6 -veined (18/98), or 7 -veined (26/98); without grooves (93), or sulcate (11); obtuse (15/95), or acute (73/95), or acuminate (2/95), or setaceously attenuate (1/95), or cuspidate (5/95). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (89/90), or membranous (1/90). Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (20), or oblong (4), or ovate (78), or orbicular (3), or trullate (1); laterally compressed (5), or dorsally compressed (98); not gibbous (15), or gibbous (88); cartilaginous (1/102), or indurate (101/102); without keel (100), or keeled (3); wingless; 3 -veined (1/2), or 5 -veined (1/2). Lemma surface smooth (96), or granulose (1), or scaberulous (1), or striate (3), or punctate (4); unwrinkled (29), or rugulose (38), or rugose (37), or corrugate (6); without grooves. Lemma margins involute; eciliate (102), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (6/56), or acute (26/56), or acuminate (1/56), or apiculate (25/56), or rostrate (1/56); without ornament (101), or scabrous (1), or pubescent (1); muticous (101), or mucronate (2). Palea not rolled (1), or involute (102); 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or indurate (101). Palea keels eciliate (101), or ciliolate (2).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (7/7). Anthers 3 (25/25).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); ellipsoid (9/18), or ovoid (6/18), or orbicular (6/18); dorsally compressed (2/2); plano-convex (2/2). Embryo 0.5–0.6633–0.9 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (13/13).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (5), or Africa (43), or Temperate Asia (18), or Tropical Asia (16), or Australasia (16), or Pacific (9), or North America (27), or South America (48).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.