GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Saccharum

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (25), or short (7), or elongated (4). Culms erect (34/35), or geniculately ascending (1/35), or rambling (1/35); robust (25/25); 0–221.6–1000 cm long; firm (34), or woody (2). Culm-internodes terete (2/2). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/2), or swollen (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (35), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (35), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (33), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (5), or firm (31). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/10), or widened (5/10). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (35), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2).

Panicle open (33/34), or contracted (1/34). Primary panicle branches not whorled (32), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (3).

Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets (3), or many spikelets (33); 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 4–6 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 7–8 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 10–17 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 18–30 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (1), or subterete (35). Rhachis internodes filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1).

Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or sessile and pedicelled (34); 1 in the cluster (3), or 2 in the cluster (34); subequal (33/33), or the upper smaller (1/33). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (3/3); 0 in the cluster (1/3), or 1 in the cluster (3/3). Pedicels filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/1).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2–5.043–10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1).

GLUMES Glumes reaching apex of florets (6/11), or exceeding apex of florets (5/11); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (7), or ovate (1); membranous (12), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (8); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (32); 1 -veined (2/19), or 2 -veined (7/19), or 3 -veined (5/19), or 4 -veined (6/19), or 5 -veined (7/19), or 6 -veined (1/19), or 7 -veined (2/19), or 9–11 -veined (1/19). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or obscure (1), or distinct (35); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (8), or flat (28); smooth (33), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); without pits; glabrous (18), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11), or hirsute (4), or villous (6). Lower glume apex entire (34), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (4/32), or truncate (3/32), or obtuse (4/32), or acute (9/32), or acuminate (16/32). Upper glume lanceolate (33), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); membranous (13), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (20), or 1-keeled (16); 1 -veined (14/28), or 2 -veined (2/28), or 3 -veined (11/28), or 5 -veined (2/28), or 7 -veined (3/28). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (35), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (23/24), or ribbed (1/24). Upper glume surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (29), or pubescent (1), or pilose (9), or hirsute (3), or villous (2). Upper glume apex truncate (2/35), or obtuse (1/35), or acute (29/35), or acuminate (2/35), or setaceously attenuate (1/35), or caudate (1/35); muticous (34), or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea (35). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline (35), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (9/18), or 1 -veined (4/18), or 2 -veined (3/18), or 3 -veined (5/18); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (2/34), or acute (31/34); muticous (35), or mucronate (2). Fertile lemma linear (18/35), or lanceolate (15/35), or elliptic (1/35), or oblong (6/35), or ovate (1/35); hyaline (35/35); wingless (35/35); 0 -veined (5/18), or 1 -veined (6/18), or 3 -veined (7/18). Lemma surface unwrinkled (35/35); without grooves (35/35); glabrous (34/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lemma margins eciliate (25/35), or ciliolate (6/35), or ciliate (5/35). Lemma apex entire (24/35), or dentate (6/35), or lobed (6/35); 2 -fid (11/11); incised 0.2–0.3517–0.5 of lemma length; acute (6/6); muticous (10/35), or mucronate (1/35), or awned (27/35); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn apical (17/28), or from a sinus (11/28); straight (17/28), or curved (4/28), or flexuous (3/28), or geniculate (6/28). Palea present (16), or absent or minute (20); 0.15–0.875–3 length of lemma; hyaline (8/16), or membranous (8/16). Palea keels eciliate (15/16), or ciliolate (1/16). Palea surface glabrous (14/16), or pilose (2/16).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (26/26); glabrous (12/26), or ciliate (14/26). Anthers 2 (2/33), or 3 (31/33).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (2/2); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (21), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (4), or North America (8), or South America (6).

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