GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Phalaris

HABIT Annual (11), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (13), or short (2), or elongated (2). Culms erect (6/6), or geniculately ascending (4/6); 10–88.52–200 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (16), or flaccid (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (16), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (16), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1).

Panicle contracted (1), or spiciform (16), or capitate (2). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (16), or deciduous spikelet clusters (2).

Spikelets appressed (2/3), or ascending (1/3); solitary (16), or subtended by an involucre (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (10), or pedicelled (8); 1 in the cluster (2/2), or 2 in the cluster (1/2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (2/2); 5 in the cluster (1/2), or 6 in the cluster (2/2). Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets (2/2). Pedicels linear (1/1); tip cupuliform (1/1).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (15), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (2/2).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (14); laterally compressed; 2.9–6.046–10 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (16); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (16/16).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (16/16); exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (5), or winged on keel (14); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4–5 -veined (6/16). Lower glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); without pits; glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Lower glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1.2–1.52–3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (4), or winged on keel (15); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4–5 -veined (6/16). Upper glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Upper glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren (14/14); without significant palea (14/14). Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3/13), or linear (7/13), or lanceolate (1/13), or ovate (2/13); 0.1–0.3895–0.75 length of fertile lemma; membranous (2/4), or fleshy (2/4); acute (3/3). Fertile lemma elliptic (15), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (15/16), or subterete (1/16); cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); keeled; wingless; 5 -veined. Lemma surface unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (3), or pubescent (15). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (15), or acuminate (1). Palea cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (14).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (10/10); membranous (10/10). Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (15/15).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). Hilum linear (15/15).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (8), or Africa (10), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (4), or North America (9), or South America (11), or Antarctica (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.