GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Paspalum

HABIT Annual (44), or perennial (282). Rhizomes absent (245), or short (52), or elongated (31). Stolons absent (309), or present (19). Culms erect (126/209), or geniculately ascending (62/209), or decumbent (53/209), or prostrate (6/209), or rambling (5/209), or leaning (2/209); robust (20/49), or slender (29/49); 2–72.43–400 cm long; spongy (5), or firm (314), or wiry (6), or woody (1); without nodal roots (9/41), or with prop roots (1/41), or rooting from lower nodes (40/41). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (5/26), or semiterete (1/26), or elliptical in section (22/26). Culm-nodes constricted (6/8), or swollen (2/8). Lateral branches lacking (97/144), or sparse (31/144), or ample (29/144), or fastigiate (1/144). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (316), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (320), or erect (6). Ligule an eciliate membrane (302), or a ciliolate membrane (9), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (12). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (320), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (4), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades aciculate (2), or filiform (19), or linear (257), or lanceolate (77), or elliptic (3); herbaceous (324), or coriaceous (2); stiff (23), or firm (296), or flaccid (7). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/12), or evident (1/12), or conspicuous (10/12). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (323), or pungent (4).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (307), or terminal and axillary (22); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (324), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted (320), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (8), or enclosed (1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (4/4).

Racemes single (61), or paired (91), or digitate (46), or borne along a central axis (204); appressed (4), or erect (7), or ascending (309), or spreading (12), or drooping (11), or deflexed (2); linear (325), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (1); unilateral (325/325); bearing 20 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (294/296), or flattened (3/296), or winged (1/296); tip without extension (295/296), or with blunt extension (1/296), or subulate (1/296), or filiform (1/296). Rhachis persistent (288/296), or deciduous from axis (8/296); wingless (189), or narrowly winged (92), or broadly winged (45); membranous (15/45), or herbaceous (17/45), or foliaceous (13/45); not appreciably folded (122/137), or folded longitudinally to embrace spikelets (15/137); flattened (34/214), or angular (174/214), or semiterete (6/214); terminating in a spikelet (298), or sterile spikelet (3), or barren extension (26); extension flattened (19/20), or subulate (2/20). Spikelet packing adaxial (1/135), or abaxial (133/135), or alternately adaxial and abaxial (1/135); crowded (37), or contiguous (277), or lax (11), or distant (2); 1 -rowed (7/183), or 2 -rowed (115/183), or 3 -rowed (23/183), or 4 -rowed (75/183), or 5 -rowed (1/183), or 6 -rowed (2/183), or 7–10 -rowed (1/183). Raceme-bases brief (322), or linear (4).

Spikelets appressed (3/4), or pectinate (1/4); solitary (137), or in pairs (196). Fertile spikelets sessile (37), or sessile and pedicelled (16), or pedicelled (273); 1 in the cluster (1/10), or 2 in the cluster (10/10); subequal (1/2), or the lower smaller (2/2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (1/1); 0–1 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free (287/289), or fused to internode (1/289), or fused to each other (1/289); oblong (101/105), or clavate (1/105), or reduced to a stump (3/105); tip discoid (7/8), or cupuliform (1/8).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (325), or rudimentary (1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (325/325); 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (24), or elliptic (176), or oblong (45), or ovate (64), or orbicular (28), or obovate (92), or oblanceolate (1), or rhomboid (6); of unremarkable solid shape (324), or hemispherical (2); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (56), or gibbous (1), or turgidly plano-convex (9), or plano-convex (255), or concavo-convex (5); 0.6–2.673–8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (324), or with accessory branch structures (2). Spikelet callus glabrous (1/2), or pilose (1/2). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (324), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2).

GLUMES Glumes both absent or obscure (11), or one the lower absent or obscure (287), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (16), or two (26); shorter than spikelet (42/316), or reaching apex of florets (275/316), or exceeding apex of florets (3/316); thinner than fertile lemma (315/316), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1/316). Lower glume linear (1/36), or lanceolate (5/36), or oblong (2/36), or ovate (26/36), or orbicular (1/36), or oblate (5/36); 0–0.27–0.6 length of upper glume; hyaline (7/16), or membranous (9/16); without keels (5/5); 0 -veined (13/21), or 1 -veined (14/21), or 2–3 -veined (2/21), or 4–5 -veined (1/21), or 9 -veined (1/21). Lower glume lateral veins absent (18/39), or distinct (22/39); without ribs (21/22), or ribbed (1/22). Lower glume surface without pits (39/39); glabrous (36/39), or pubescent (2/39), or pilose (1/39). Lower glume apex truncate (1/17), or obtuse (6/17), or acute (12/17), or acuminate (1/17). Upper glume lanceolate (8/316), or elliptic (174/316), or oblong (10/316), or ovate (89/316), or orbicular (15/316), or oblate (1/316), or obovate (25/316); without auricles (310/316), or auriculate at base (6/316); not gibbous (315/316), or gibbous (1/316); 1–1.216–1.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (11/315), or membranous (289/315), or chartaceous (11/315), or herbaceous (1/315), or cartilaginous (2/315), or coriaceous (2/315); with undifferentiated margins (314/316), or hyaline margins (1/316), or cartilaginous margins (1/316); without keels (313/314), or 1-keeled (1/314); wingless (309/316), or winged on margins (7/316); 0–4–15 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (303/305), or ciliate (1/305), or pubescent (2/305). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (313/315), or ribbed (2/315); with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (295/316), or asperulous (2/316), or scabrous (4/316), or papillose (4/316), or tuberculate (1/316), or wrinkled (9/316), or rugose (1/316); glabrous (209/316), or puberulous (37/316), or pubescent (57/316), or pilose (22/316), or hirsute (3/316), or villous (9/316), or hispidulous (1/316), or setose (1/316); with simple hairs (111/130), or tubercle-based hairs (13/130), or capitate hairs (5/130), or clavate hairs (1/130); without hair tufts (310/316), or with basal tufts of hair (3/316), or with marginal tufts of hair (2/316), or with an apical beard (1/316). Upper glume apex entire (311/316), or erose (2/316), or with a unilateral tooth (2/316), or dentate (2/316); 1–2 -fid (1/2), or 7 -fid (1/2); emarginate (1/233), or truncate (2/233), or obtuse (108/233), or acute (119/233), or acuminate (3/233), or attenuate (1/233), or cuspidate (2/233), or caudate (1/233); muticous (311/316), or mucronate (3/316), or awned (3/316); 1 -awned (3/4), or 3 -awned (1/4). Upper glume awn terminal (4/5), or subapical (1/5).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (11/325), or barren (316/325); with palea (15/325), or without significant palea (312/325). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (5/325), or elliptic (237/325), or oblong (15/325), or ovate (39/325), or orbicular (13/325), or trullate (1/325), or obovate (21/325); 0.9–1.2–1.6 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (11/323), or membranous (293/323), or chartaceous (9/323), or cartilaginous (3/323), or coriaceous (8/323); 1 -veined (2/288), or 2 -veined (22/288), or 3 -veined (175/288), or 4 -veined (26/288), or 5 -veined (116/288), or 6 -veined (8/288), or 7 -veined (11/288), or 8–9 -veined (1/288); without ribs (322/323), or ribbed (1/323); without grooves (313/325), or sulcate (12/325), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1/325), or readily splitting into two halves (1/325); truncate (1/232), or obtuse (111/232), or acute (115/232), or acuminate (4/232), or cuspidate (2/232); muticous (320/325), or mucronate (3/325), or awned (3/325). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (11/15), or becoming indurate on keels at maturity (3/15), or becoming indurate on flanks at maturity (1/15); wingless (13/15), or winged on keels (2/15). Fertile lemma lanceolate (7), or elliptic (208), or oblong (16), or ovate (62), or orbicular (24), or obovate (34); not gibbous (276), or gibbous (50); hemispherical (1/1); membranous (1), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (8), or coriaceous (17), or indurate (298); without keel (325), or keeled (1); wingless; 3 -veined (8/31), or 4 -veined (1/31), or 5 -veined (21/31), or 7 -veined (3/31). Lemma lateral veins obscure (5/7), or distinct (1/7), or prominent (1/7). Lemma surface smooth (188), or granulose (14), or scaberulous (4), or papillose (43), or tuberculate (2), or striate (72), or punctate (11); unwrinkled (325), or rugulose (1); without grooves; glabrous (320), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1); without hair tufts (325), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins flat (2), or involute (323), or convolute (1); exposing palea (325), or covering most of palea (1); eciliate (319), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex obtuse (119/165), or acute (44/165), or acuminate (2/165), or apiculate (1/165), or rostrate (1/165); without ornament (312), or papillose (2), or scabrous (1), or pubescent (12); muticous (325), or mucronate (1). Palea embraced by lemma (324), or separating from lemma above (1), or gaping (1); not rolled (5), or involute (321); membranous (2), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (17), or indurate (301); 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels smooth (325), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (325), or puberulous (1). Palea surface glabrous (324), or puberulous (2).

FLOWER Lodicules absent (2/27), or 2 (25/27); membranous (1/4), or fleshy (3/4); truncate (4/5), or obtuse (1/5). Anthers 3 (206/206). Stigmas 2 (2/2).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (268/268); ellipsoid (20/41), or oblong (3/41), or ovoid (2/41), or orbicular (5/41), or obovoid (12/41); dorsally compressed (3/4), or flattened (1/4); plano-convex (7/7). Embryo 0.3–0.4315–0.7 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (9/24), or elliptic (12/24), or linear (4/24); 0.25–0.482–0.66 length of caryopsis.

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (323), or present (4); in lower sheaths (3/4), or underground (1/4).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (11), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (14), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (15), or North America (96), or South America (290), or Antarctica (1).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.