GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Festuca

HABIT Perennial (615/615). Rhizomes absent (547), or short (50), or elongated (36). Stolons absent (614), or present (10). Culms erect (289/317), or geniculately ascending (55/317), or decumbent (4/317); robust (19/86), or of moderate stature (31/86), or slender (42/86); 2.5–49.12–260 cm long; firm (618), or wiry (3); without nodal roots (55/56), or rooting from lower nodes (1/56). Culm-internodes terete (76/77), or channelled (1/77). Culm-nodes constricted (5/6), or swollen (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (196/198), or ample (2/198). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (281/418), or tubular for much of their length (140/418). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (493), or erect (123), or falcate (7). Ligule an eciliate membrane (464), or a ciliolate membrane (156), or a ciliate membrane (1), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent (610), or deciduous at the ligule (11); aciculate (12), or filiform (373), or linear (240); herbaceous (572), or coriaceous (49); stiff (131), or firm (481), or flaccid (30); without exudate (564), or pruinose (65). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (41/59), or evident (24/59), or conspicuous (5/59). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (619), or with obscure cross veins (2). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (3/4), or rectangular ribs (1/4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (579), or pungent (45).

INFLORESCENCE Bisexual (610), or monoecious (2), or dioecious (9). Inflorescence a panicle, or comprising only a few spikelets (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (620), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (618), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3).

Panicle open (483/619), or contracted (153/619), or spiciform (6/619). Primary panicle branches not whorled (619), or whorled at most nodes (2).

Spikelets appressed (5/6), or ascending (1/6); solitary (614/615), or in pairs (1/615). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (615/615). Pedicels filiform (3/3); tip rectangular (5/13), or widened (9/13).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 0–4–13 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (11/620), or with diminished florets at the apex (612/620). Spikelets linear (3/617), or lanceolate (108/617), or elliptic (152/617), or oblong (407/617), or ovate (62/617), or obovate (8/617), or rhomboid (1/617), or cuneate (11/617); laterally compressed (618), or subterete (3); 3–9.204–40 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (619); disarticulating below each fertile floret (619/619), or above glumes but not between florets (1/619). Spikelet callus glabrous (55/59), or pubescent (1/59), or pilose (3/59). Rhachilla internodes definite (620/620); glabrous (574/620), or sparsely hairy (9/620), or pubescent (37/620), or pilose (6/620). Floret callus brief (620), or elongated (1); glabrous (68/81), or sparsely hairy (3/81), or pubescent (7/81), or pilose (5/81).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (619/619); shorter than spikelet (614/616), or reaching apex of florets (3/616), or exceeding apex of florets (1/616); thinner than fertile lemma (10), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (611); parallel to lemmas (620), or gaping (1). Lower glume subulate (5/616), or linear (52/616), or lanceolate (539/616), or elliptic (10/616), or oblong (14/616), or ovate (14/616), or obovate (1/616); 0.33–0.7524–9 length of upper glume; hyaline (14/616), or membranous (73/616), or chartaceous (521/616), or herbaceous (10/616), or scarious (14/616), or cartilaginous (1/616), or coriaceous (17/616); without keels (596/611), or 1-keeled (17/611); 1 -veined (596/613), or 2 -veined (15/613), or 3 -veined (31/613), or 4–5 -veined (1/613). Lower glume lateral veins absent (583), or obscure (6), or distinct (42); without ribs (47/48), or ribbed (1/48). Lower glume surface smooth (552), or asperulous (40), or scabrous (44); without pits; glabrous (608), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4). Lower glume apex truncate (2/614), or obtuse (27/614), or acute (535/614), or acuminate (72/614), or attenuate (4/614), or setaceously attenuate (3/614); muticous (612/614), or mucronate (3/614), or awned (1/614). Upper glume linear (29/616), or lanceolate (501/616), or elliptic (24/616), or oblong (58/616), or ovate (79/616), or obovate (3/616); 0.33–0.8138–8.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (7/616), or membranous (55/616), or chartaceous (531/616), or herbaceous (2/616), or scarious (14/616), or coriaceous (13/616); with undifferentiated margins (559), or hyaline margins (15), or membranous margins (12), or scarious margins (35); without keels (599/616), or 1-keeled (17/616); 1 -veined (18/604), or 2 -veined (7/604), or 3 -veined (589/604), or 4 -veined (10/604), or 5 -veined (13/604). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (609/610), or ribbed (1/610). Upper glume surface smooth (540), or asperulous (44), or scabrous (54); glabrous (606), or puberulous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (4). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/613), or truncate (2/613), or obtuse (56/613), or acute (417/613), or acuminate (160/613), or attenuate (5/613), or setaceously attenuate (3/613); muticous (610/616), or mucronate (6/616), or awned (3/616); 1 -awned (3/3).

FLORETS Fertile florets bisexual (612), or female (9). Fertile lemma linear (7/616), or lanceolate (328/616), or elliptic (73/616), or oblong (193/616), or ovate (52/616), or orbicular (1/616); membranous (41/616), or chartaceous (563/616), or herbaceous (4/616), or scarious (4/616), or coriaceous (10/616); of similar consistency above (610), or much thinner above (11); of similar consistency on margins (593), or much thinner on margins (28); without keel (591/612), or keeled (21/612); wingless; 1–2 -veined (1/613), or 3 -veined (17/613), or 4 -veined (11/613), or 5 -veined (605/613), or 6–7 -veined (4/613). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (594), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (22); eciliate (620), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (37/63), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (7/63), or distinct (7/63), or prominent (12/63). Lemma surface smooth (369), or granulose (2), or asperulous (22), or scaberulous (132), or scabrous (132), or papillose (5), or punctate (1); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (572), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (37), or pilose (6), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Lemma margins flat (620), or involute (1); eciliate (597), or ciliolate (12), or ciliate (23), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (596), or erose (4), or dentate (27); 2 -fid (25/27), or 3 -fid (2/27), or 4 -fid (1/27); emarginate (12/569), or obtuse (18/569), or acute (330/569), or acuminate (211/569), or attenuate (14/569), or setaceously attenuate (9/569), or cuspidate (2/569); without ornament (616), or scabrous (4), or pubescent (1); muticous (205), or pungent (1), or mucronate (105), or awned (454); 0 -awned (1/452), or 1 -awned (452/452). Principal lemma awn apical (476/505), or subapical (11/505), or from a sinus (19/505); straight (500/505), or curved (1/505), or flexuous (7/505); 0.1–0.7741–19 length of lemma. Palea 0.6–1.018–2 length of lemma; 2 -veined (577/577). Palea keels smooth (357), or scaberulous (107), or scabrous (163); eciliate (560), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or ciliolate (50), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (571), or puberulous (20), or pubescent (21), or pilose (9). Palea apex entire (3/68), or erose (1/68), or dentate (64/68); muticous (620), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (597/612), or distinct from fertile (15/612); 1 in number (2/2); barren (4/4); rudimentary (1/5), or linear (1/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (13/15), or mucronate (2/15), or awned (2/15).

FLOWER Lodicules 1 (1/112), or 2 (111/112); membranous (18/18); glabrous (109/112), or ciliate (5/112); entire (3/15), or with a small lateral lobe (3/15), or 2-toothed (11/15), or irregularly toothed (1/15). Anthers 3 (598/598). Ovary glabrous (250/397), or with a few apical hairs (28/397), or pubescent on apex (131/397).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (577/577); linear (5/165), or lanceolate (15/165), or fusiform (3/165), or ellipsoid (103/165), or oblong (15/165), or ovoid (2/165), or obovoid (29/165), or oblanceolate (1/165); dorsally compressed (1/1); plano-convex (1/2), or concavo-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.1–0.1958–0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/563), or linear (561/563); 0.4–0.7621–1 length of caryopsis.

MALE Male inflorescence similar to female (11/11); a panicle (3/3). Male spikelets resembling female (11/11).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (192), or Africa (67), or Temperate Asia (158), or Tropical Asia (49), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (8), or North America (62), or South America (163), or Antarctica (5).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.