GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Eragrostis

HABIT Annual (135), or perennial (277). Rhizomes absent (373), or short (18), or elongated (15). Stolons absent (391), or present (13). Culms erect (253/309), or geniculately ascending (128/309), or decumbent (38/309), or prostrate (6/309), or rambling (1/309); robust (12/30), or slender (18/30); 2–50.06–300 cm long; firm (371), or wiry (27), or woody (4); without nodal roots (7/12), or rooting from lower nodes (11/12), or eventually collapsing and rooting from upper nodes (1/12). Culm-internodes terete (10/13), or semiterete (1/13), or channelled (3/13), or elliptical in section (4/13). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (73/104), or sparse (28/104), or ample (17/104), or fastigiate (4/104), or suffrutescent (2/104). Branch complement one (1/1), or two (1/1), or three (1/1), or several (1/1), or many (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (2), or a ciliolate membrane (4), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (387), or absent (5). Leaf-blades persistent (400), or deciduous at the ligule (3); aciculate (3), or filiform (46), or linear (355), or lanceolate (10), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (389), or coriaceous (12); stiff (51), or firm (347), or flaccid (4); without exudate (395), or viscid (7); without scent (400), or aromatic (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (3/3). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (15/15). Leaf-blade apex muticous (394), or pungent (7).

INFLORESCENCE Bisexual (399), or dioecious (2). Inflorescence a panicle (400), or composed of racemes (3); terminal (396), or terminal and axillary (8); not deciduous as a whole (397), or deciduous as a whole (4); exserted (394), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (10).

Panicle open (315/400), or contracted (73/400), or spiciform (31/400), or glomerate (6/400), or capitate (4/400). Primary panicle branches not whorled (379/400), or whorled at lower nodes (23/400), or whorled at most nodes (7/400); without sterile bristles (395/400), or sterile at the tips (8/400).

Racemes borne along a central axis (3/3); unilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (2/3), or many spikelets (1/3). Rhachis angular (1/1); terminating in a spikelet (1/3), or barren extension (2/3); extension bristle-like (2/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (1/1).

Spikelets appressed (10/18), or ascending (1/18), or spreading (9/18); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (44), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (369). Pedicels filiform (52/75), or linear (4/75), or oblong (18/75), or reduced to a stump (2/75); tip widened (3/3).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/8), or 1 basal sterile florets (4/8), or 2 basal sterile florets (3/8), or 3 basal sterile florets (2/8), or 4–5 basal sterile florets (1/8); 1–13–145 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (1), or with a barren rhachilla extension (6), or with diminished florets at the apex (396). Spikelets linear (131), or lanceolate (36), or elliptic (41), or oblong (237), or ovate (114), or orbicular (8), or obovate (3), or oblanceolate (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed (395), or subterete (13); 0.8–7.4–50 mm long; persistent on plant (4), or falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (396); rhachilla deciduous (97/396), or rhachilla persistent (299/396); disarticulating below each fertile floret (94/97), or between fertile florets but the distal falling as a whole (1/97), or below groups of fertile florets (2/97), or above glumes but not between florets (1/97); retaining paleas (233/298), or shedding paleas (67/298). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (400), or elongated between glumes (2); definite; glabrous (395), or pubescent (5), or pilose (3). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (35/361), or lower persistent, upper deciduous (2/361), or deciduous (326/361); shorter than spikelet (399), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (400); parallel to lemmas (398), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (2). Lower glume linear (12), or lanceolate (187), or elliptic (5), or oblong (20), or ovate (213), or orbicular (2); 0.2–0.839–1.25 length of upper glume; hyaline (20/273), or membranous (247/273), or chartaceous (5/273), or herbaceous (1/273), or cartilaginous (9/273); without keels (22), or 1-keeled (385); 0 -veined (16/400), or 1 -veined (383/400), or 2 -veined (7/400), or 3 -veined (13/400), or 4–5 -veined (1/400). Lower glume lateral veins absent (386), or obscure (1), or distinct (16). Lower glume surface smooth (391), or asperulous (11), or scabrous (2); without pits; glabrous (393), or pilose (12). Lower glume apex entire (399), or erose (2); emarginate (6), or obtuse (47), or acute (315), or acuminate (63), or attenuate (3), or setaceously attenuate (2), or cuspidate (1); muticous (397), or mucronate (3), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (7), or lanceolate (155), or elliptic (9), or oblong (21), or ovate (242), or orbicular (3); 0.2–0.837–2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (15/269), or membranous (247/269), or chartaceous (5/269), or herbaceous (1/269), or cartilaginous (10/269); with undifferentiated margins (397), or hyaline margins (4); without keels (4/400), or 1-keeled (399/400); 0 -veined (3/400), or 1 -veined (379/400), or 2 -veined (10/400), or 3 -veined (30/400), or 4–5 -veined (1/400). Upper glume surface smooth (392), or asperulous (10), or scabrous (2); glabrous (393), or pilose (12); with simple hairs (10/12), or tubercle-based hairs (3/12). Upper glume apex entire (400), or erose (2), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); emarginate (4), or truncate (1), or obtuse (45), or acute (318), or acuminate (64), or attenuate (4), or setaceously attenuate (2), or cuspidate (1); muticous (397), or mucronate (5), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren (8/8); with palea (1/6), or without significant palea (5/6). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1/1); 1 -veined (2/2), or 2–3 -veined (1/2). Fertile florets bisexual (399), or female (2). Fertile lemma lanceolate (27/399), or elliptic (78/399), or oblong (55/399), or ovate (289/399), or orbicular (24/399), or oblate (4/399), or trullate (1/399), or obovate (3/399); not gibbous (394), or gibbous (7); lanceolate in profile (6/15), or elliptic in profile (3/15), or oblong in profile (1/15), or ovate in profile (4/15), or hemispherical (1/15), or globose (1/15); hyaline (1), or membranous (334), or chartaceous (34), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (2), or cartilaginous (32), or coriaceous (3); of similar consistency above (398), or much thinner above (3); of similar consistency on margins (391), or much thinner on margins (10); without keel (11), or keeled (391); wingless (400), or winged on keel (1); 1–2 -veined (3/399), or 3 -veined (399/399), or 4–5 -veined (2/399). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (353), or scaberulous (34), or scabrous (19); eciliate (398), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (3). Lemma lateral veins obscure (72/220), or distinct (85/220), or prominent (61/220), or thickened (5/220); without ribs (395), or ribbed (6); excurrent (6/17), or extending close to apex (5/17), or stopping well short of apex (6/17), or less than two thirds length of lemma (3/17). Lemma surface smooth (348), or granulose (8), or asperulous (12), or scaberulous (37), or scabrous (9), or tuberculate (1), or punctate (2); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (391), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (2), or pilose (9), or hispidulous (3), or hispid (1); hairy on back (14/16), or on veins (2/16); with simple hairs (12/16), or tubercle-based hairs (4/16). Lemma margins eciliate (385), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (8), or pubescent (4), or pilose (9), or woolly (1). Lemma apex entire (395), or erose (3), or dentate (4), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (1/4), or 3 -fid (3/4); incised 0.3–0.35–0.4 of lemma length; emarginate (15/398), or truncate (19/398), or obtuse (140/398), or acute (234/398), or acuminate (35/398), or setaceously attenuate (1/398), or cuspidate (4/398), or apiculate (6/398), or caudate (1/398); without ornament (400), or pubescent (1); muticous (388), or mucronate (28), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/4), or 3 -awned (1/4). Principal lemma awn apical (29/30), or from a sinus (1/30). Palea embraced by lemma (399), or readily splitting down midline (2); 0.33–0.8456–1.1 length of lemma; hyaline (13), or membranous (385), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined (64/64). Palea keels separated (391), or approximate (8), or contiguous above a sulcus (2); unthickened (388), or thickened (13); wingless (377), or winged (24); with entire wings (22/24), or erose wings (1/24), or toothed wings (1/24); smooth (195), or scaberulous (150), or scabrous (59), or tuberculate (11); eciliate (291), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (5), or ciliolate (64), or ciliate (37), or pectinate (2), or woolly (1). Palea surface glabrous (398), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (400), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (395/396), or distinct from fertile (1/396).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (212/212); fleshy (210/210); truncate (2/2). Anthers 2 (52/282), or 3 (235/282). Stigmas 2 (5/5). Ovary glabrous (1/1).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (377/386), or tardily free pericarp (7/386), or free soft pericarp (4/386); linear (2/277), or lanceolate (2/277), or fusiform (1/277), or ellipsoid (137/277), or oblong (83/277), or ovoid (49/277), or orbicular (47/277), or obovoid (8/277), or square (2/277); isodiametric (31/59), or laterally compressed (12/59), or dorsally compressed (13/59), or flattened (3/59); biconvex (2/14), or plano-convex (3/14), or concavo-convex (1/14), or trigonous (6/14), or quadrangular (2/14); smooth (2/16), or striate (5/16), or reticulate (10/16), or rugose (1/16). Embryo 0.33–0.4869–0.9 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (10/11), or elliptic (1/11).

MALE Male inflorescence similar to female (2/2); a panicle (1/1). Male spikelets resembling female (2/2).

CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (400), or present (1); in upper sheaths (1/1).

DISTRIBUTION Europe (10), or Africa (212), or Temperate Asia (51), or Tropical Asia (56), or Australasia (75), or Pacific (33), or North America (53), or South America (91).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.