GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Echinolaena

HABIT Annual (1), or perennial (8). Rhizomes absent (4), or elongated (5). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (2), or decumbent (2), or prostrate (2), or rambling (6); 20–62.5–120 cm long; without nodal roots (1/6), or rooting from lower nodes (6/6). Lateral branches ample (2/2). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (8). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (7), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (2), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear (2), or lanceolate (8), or ovate (2); herbaceous (8), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (8). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (4), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (4). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (2/2). Leaf-blade apex muticous (8), or pungent (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (7), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (2/2).

Racemes single (4), or borne along a central axis (6); ascending (2), or spreading (5), or deflexed (2); unilateral. Rhachis flattened (4), or angular (1), or subterete (3), or semiterete (1); terminating in a spikelet (7), or barren extension (2); extension subulate (1/1). Spikelet packing 4 -rowed (1/1).

Spikelets ascending (3), or pectinate (7); solitary (4), or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (5), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (3); 1 in the cluster (5), or 2 in the cluster; subequal (4/4), or the lower smaller (4/4). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (1/1); 0–1 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels oblong (1/1).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (8), or rudimentary (1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (6), or dorsally compressed (3); 4–6.063–10.5 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus winged; with apical wings adnate to lemma (7), or apical wings shrivelled to concave scars (3).

GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or ovate (3); clasping (2/2); 1.25 length of upper glume; membranous (3), or herbaceous (4), or coriaceous (2); without keels (6), or 1-keeled (3); 3 -veined (4), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (4), or 7 -veined (2), or 9 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (7), or ribbed (2). Lower glume surface without pits; glabrous (3), or pilose (4), or hispid (1), or setose (1). Lower glume apex entire (8), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (1/8), or acuminate (3/8), or attenuate (2/8), or cuspidate (1/8), or caudate (2/8); muticous (6), or mucronate (1), or awned (4). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); membranous (8), or herbaceous (1); without keels (6), or 1-keeled (3); 5 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (3), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (2). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (7), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (8), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (4), or pubescent (2), or pilose (3), or setose (1); with simple hairs (2/6), or tubercle-based hairs (4/6). Upper glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (6), or rostrate (1); muticous (6), or mucronate (2), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).

FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (8), or barren (2); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); membranous (8), or herbaceous (1); 5 -veined (6/8), or 7 -veined (1/8), or 9 -veined (1/8); obtuse (1/8), or acute (7/8); muticous (8), or mucronate (1). Fertile lemma elliptic (6), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed (8/8); indurate; without keel; wingless; 5 -veined (6/6). Lemma surface smooth (8), or granulose (1); unwrinkled; without grooves. Lemma margins involute; exposing palea (6), or covering most of palea (3). Lemma apex obtuse (6/6); muticous (8), or mucronate (1). Palea not rolled (6), or involute (3); indurate.

FLOWER Anthers 3 (4/4).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2). Embryo 0.66 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 0.33 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Africa (3), or North America (2), or South America (6).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.