GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cynosurus

HABIT Annual (7), or perennial (2). Rhizomes absent (8), or elongated (1). Culms erect (4/5), or geniculately ascending (4/5); 5–41.11–100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (8), or coriaceous (1); stiff (2), or firm (6), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous, or pungent (1).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1).

Panicle contracted (4), or spiciform (3), or capitate (2).

Spikelets in pairs, or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster, or 2 in the cluster (1).

STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes mucronate (1/1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4–5 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (6), or cuneate (4); laterally compressed; 2.3–5.273–14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes definite (8/8).

GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (6), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (2). Lower glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.8–0.9625–1 length of upper glume; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled (8/8); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1); without pits. Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.75–1.246–2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (8), or hyaline margins (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (7), or 2 -veined (2). Upper glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or oblong (4), or ovate (4); chartaceous (5), or coriaceous (4); without keel; wingless; 3–4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (2), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (3); unwrinkled; without grooves; glabrous (7), or pubescent (1), or hispid (1). Lemma apex entire (5), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); emarginate (2/6), or obtuse (4/6), or acute (2/6); muticous (1), or awned (8); 1 -awned (8/8). Principal lemma awn apical (4/8), or from a sinus (5/8). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (6), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (2). Palea apex dentate (1/1).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (3/3); membranous (1/1); acute (1/1). Anthers 3 (8/8).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (8/8); oblong (5/5), or ovoid (1/5); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1–0.22–0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/5), or elliptic (1/5), or linear (1/5); 0.2–0.35–0.5 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (2), or South America (2), or Antarctica (2).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.