GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Chloris

HABIT Annual (13), or perennial (47). Rhizomes absent (56), or short (3). Stolons absent (42), or present (29). Culms erect (27/43), or geniculately ascending (26/43), or decumbent (10/43), or prostrate (1/43); robust (2/4), or slender (2/4); 5–50.41–300 cm long; firm (56), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (9/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or sparse (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (29), or a ciliate membrane (23), or a fringe of hairs (3), or absent (2). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (58).

INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; not deciduous as a whole (55), or deciduous as a whole (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (58), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (56), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Peduncle persistent (55), or disarticulating (4).

Racemes single (2), or paired (5), or digitate (54), or borne along a central axis (3); not compacted (54/56), or in a multilateral false spike (2/56); side by side (55/56), or appressed back to back (1/56); appressed (1), or erect (10), or ascending (41), or spreading (15), or radiating (4), or drooping (1), or deflexed (3); unilateral. Rhachis flattened (1/36), or angular (4/36), or subterete (31/36). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (7), or contiguous (46), or lax (6); 2 -rowed (1/1). Raceme-bases brief (57), or filiform (2).

Spikelets appressed (17/22), or ascending (1/22), or spreading (2/22), or pectinate (1/22), or pendulous (1/22); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (1). Pedicels reduced to a stump (1/1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (58). Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or cuneate (56); laterally compressed; 1.5–3.116–6.2 mm long; falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (55); deciduous with accessory branch structures (4/4); disarticulating below each fertile floret (55/55). Rhachilla internodes definite (3/3). Floret callus brief (56), or evident (3); glabrous (1/57), or pubescent (18/57), or pilose (5/57), or bearded (33/57); obtuse (56), or acute (2), or pungent (1).

GLUMES Glumes persistent (55/55); shorter than spikelet (29), or reaching apex of florets (23), or exceeding apex of florets (20); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (1), or gaping (58). Lower glume lanceolate (56), or ovate (8); 0.4–0.6381–1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (56), or chartaceous (1), or scarious (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface without pits. Lower glume apex acute (54), or acuminate (8); muticous (58), or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (55), or oblong (1), or ovate (6), or obovate (1); 0.3–0.9897–2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (57), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (57), or hyaline margins (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex entire (58), or erose (1); truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (50), or acuminate (6), or setaceously attenuate (4); muticous (55), or mucronate (5).

FLORETS Fertile lemma linear (2), or lanceolate (15), or elliptic (37), or oblong (3), or ovate (16), or obovate (5); laterally compressed; not gibbous (57), or gibbous (2); lanceolate in profile (6/21), or elliptic in profile (8/21), or oblong in profile (2/21), or ovate in profile (5/21); cartilaginous (58), or coriaceous (1); of similar consistency on margins (58), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; wingless (58), or winged on margins (1); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (54), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (2); eciliate (34), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (20), or pubescent (6). Lemma surface smooth (54), or scabrous (5), or tuberculate (1); unwrinkled; without grooves (58), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1); glabrous (54), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (7), or pilose (3); hairy on back (8/10), or between veins (2/10); with simple hairs (8/10), or tubercle-based hairs (1/10), or clavate hairs (1/10); without hair tufts (58), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins flat (58), or involute (1); eciliate (11), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (36), or pubescent (8). Lemma apex entire (52), or dentate (6), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (7/7); incised 0.1–0.2017–0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (2/46), or truncate (2/46), or obtuse (19/46), or acute (26/46), or acuminate (2/46); muticous (3), or mucronate (3), or awned (58); 1 -awned (56/58), or 3 -awned (2/58). Principal lemma awn apical (2), or subapical (49), or from a sinus (7), or dorsal (1); straight, or curved (1). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (3/3). Palea keels separated (58), or approximate (1); eciliate (57), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (34/58), or 2 in number (16/58), or 3 in number (13/58), or 4 in number (4/58), or 5 in number (1/58); male (2/58), or barren (57/58); separate (39/58), or in a clump (19/58); linear (2/58), or lanceolate (10/58), or elliptic (10/58), or oblong (15/58), or ovate (1/58), or orbicular (1/58), or cuneate (23/58). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (8/58), or mucronate (2/58), or awned (54/58).

FLOWER Lodicules 2 (58/58); fleshy (58/58). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (58/58).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (58), or tardily free pericarp (1); fusiform (3/34), or ellipsoid (26/34), or oblong (1/34), or ovoid (4/34), or obovoid (6/34); laterally compressed (1/33), or dorsally compressed (32/33); trigonous (56/56); smooth (1/1); apex unappendaged (1/1). Embryo 0.66–0.705–0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (23/23).

DISTRIBUTION Africa (21), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (13), or Australasia (11), or Pacific (6), or North America (13), or South America (26).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.