GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Cephalostachyum

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (4/14), or leaning (2/14), or scandent (10/14); slender (1/1); 100–881.7–3000 cm long; wiry (1), or woody. Culm-internodes terete (14/14). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement several (2/2). Culm-sheaths tardily deciduous (1/2), or deciduous (1/2); auriculate (5/5). Culm-sheath blade linear (1/8), or lanceolate (3/8), or narrowly ovate (1/8), or ovate (3/8), or triangular (1/8); as wide as sheath at base (1/5), or cordate (4/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (5), or erect (7), or falcate (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (13), or a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades linear (1), or lanceolate (14), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); herbaceous (13), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); stiff (1), or firm (14). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/8), or evident (1/8), or conspicuous (6/8). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (8), or with obscure cross veins (4), or with distinct cross veins (3). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (14/14); globose (7/14), or clustered at the nodes (7/14); in globose clusters (6/7), or oblong clusters (1/7); with glumaceous subtending bracts (7/14), or spathaceous subtending bracts (6/14), or foliaceous subtending bracts (1/14); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (14/14); leafless between clusters (2/2).

Fertile spikelets sessile (14/14).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (14/14); with a barren rhachilla extension (11/14), or with diminished florets at the apex (5/14). Spikelets linear (1/14), or lanceolate (12/14), or oblong (1/14), or ovate (1/14); laterally compressed (14/14); 7.47–13.81–20 mm long; breaking up at maturity (14/14); disarticulating below each fertile floret (14/14).

GLUMES Glumes two (6/14), or several (8/14); persistent (14/14); shorter than spikelet (14/14). Lower glume lanceolate (3/7), or ovate (4/7); membranous (2/2); 1-keeled (1/1); 3 -veined (1/3), or 7–8 -veined (1/3), or 9–11 -veined (2/3). Lower glume surface without pits (14/14); glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (1/14), or pilose (1/14), or hirsute (1/14). Lower glume apex acuminate (2/3), or attenuate (1/3); muticous (5/7), or mucronate (1/7), or awned (1/7). Upper glume lanceolate (3/14), or ovate (13/14); membranous (2/14), or chartaceous (12/14); without keels (13/14), or 1-keeled (1/14); 7–8 -veined (2/4), or 9 -veined (4/4), or 10–11 -veined (3/4). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (4/14), or hirsute (1/14). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/12), or acute (1/12), or acuminate (8/12), or attenuate (1/12), or cuspidate (1/12); muticous (5/14), or mucronate (5/14), or awned (4/14); 1 -awned (4/4).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (6/14), or ovate (9/14); chartaceous (14/14); without keel (14/14); wingless (14/14); 5–6 -veined (1/4), or 7 -veined (2/4), or 8 -veined (1/4), or 9 -veined (3/4), or 10–11 -veined (2/4). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface unwrinkled (14/14); without grooves (14/14); glabrous (10/14), or pubescent (3/14), or hirsute (1/14). Lemma margins flat (13/14), or convolute (1/14); eciliate (11/14), or ciliate (3/14). Lemma apex entire (13/14), or dentate (1/14); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/13), or acute (1/13), or acuminate (11/13); muticous (4/14), or mucronate (6/14), or awned (6/14); 1 -awned (6/6). Palea not rolled (8/14), or tightly convolute around flower (6/14); 1 length of lemma; chartaceous (14/14); 2 -veined (1/1); 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (2/14), or 2-keeled (12/14). Palea keels separated (1/14), or approximate (13/14); smooth (13/14), or scaberulous (1/14); eciliate (12/14), or ciliate (2/14). Palea surface glabrous (11/14), or pubescent (2/14), or pilose (1/14). Palea apex dentate (5/5); muticous (10/14), or with excurrent keel veins (4/14). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (4/5), or 2 in number (1/5); barren (2/2); rudimentary (2/5), or lanceolate (3/5). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (4/5), or awned (1/5).

FLOWER Lodicules absent (1/14), or 2 (1/14), or 3 (13/14); glabrous (3/13), or ciliate (10/13). Anthers 6 (14/14). Stigmas 2 (8/12), or 3 (7/12); plumose (13/14), or pubescent (1/14). Ovary with a steeple-like appendage (14/14); glabrous (9/10), or pubescent on apex (1/10).

FRUIT Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (14/14); oblong (2/8), or ovoid (4/8), or orbicular (1/8), or obovoid (4/8).

DISTRIBUTION Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (12).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.