GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

Descriptions

W.D. Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson

© Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Arundinaria

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (2), or short (6), or elongated (21); leptomorph (21/27), or pachymorph (6/27). Culms erect (17/19), or arching (1/19), or scandent (2/19); 20–244.2–800 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/2), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (2/2); terete (27), or semiterete (1), or channelled (1). Culm-nodes swollen (3/3); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3), or sparse (3), or suffrutescent (3), or dendroid (23). Branch complement one (2/19), or two (4/19), or three (11/19), or several (8/19), or many (2/19); solitary (1/7), or in a horizontal line (1/7), or in a clump (5/7); at the node (28), or subtended by a bare patch above the node (1); with subequal branches (6/7), or 1 branch dominant (1/7); as thick as stem (2/14), or thinner than stem (12/14). Culm-sheaths persistent (6/12), or tardily deciduous (1/12), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/12), or deciduous (5/12); without auricles (18/18). Culm-sheath blade linear (5/15), or lanceolate (9/15), or narrowly ovate (1/15), or triangular (2/15); narrower than sheath (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (26), or erect (1), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (24), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (3), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (27). Leaf-blades persistent (14), or deciduous at the ligule (15); linear (4), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); herbaceous (24), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (3); stiff (1), or firm (28). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (16), or with obscure cross veins (3), or with distinct cross veins (11). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/3), or cartilaginous (2/3).

INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence simple (22/23), or compound (1/23); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (8/23), or composed of racemes (4/23), or comprising only a few spikelets (11/23); terminal (22/23), or terminal and axillary (1/23); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20/23), or a spatheole (3/23); exserted (21/23), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2/23). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1).

Panicle open (8/8).

Racemes single (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (4/4); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3/3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 5–6 fertile spikelets on each (1/3).

Spikelets solitary (23/23). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (23/23). Pedicels filiform (1/1).

FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1–6–15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5–36.2–110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); definite (22/22); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22).

GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5/23), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (1/23), or two (20/23), or several (1/23); persistent (21/23), or deciduous (2/23); shorter than spikelet (23/23). Lower glume linear (1/21), or lanceolate (11/21), or oblong (1/21), or ovate (8/21); 0.3–0.5–0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous (20/20); without keels (17/18), or 1-keeled (1/18); 0 -veined (1/11), or 1 -veined (2/11), or 3 -veined (1/11), or 5 -veined (4/11), or 6 -veined (1/11), or 7 -veined (4/11). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/21), or distinct (18/21). Lower glume surface without pits (21/21); glabrous (20/21), or pilose (1/21). Lower glume apex acute (13/19), or acuminate (4/19), or attenuate (2/19); muticous (19/21), or mucronate (1/21), or awned (1/21). Upper glume lanceolate (7/23), or elliptic (4/23), or oblong (1/23), or ovate (12/23); 0.2–0.3825–0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (23/23); without keels (19/20), or 1-keeled (1/20); 3 -veined (2/14), or 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (4/14), or 6 -veined (1/14), or 7 -veined (9/14), or 8–9 -veined (1/14), or 11 -veined (1/14). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (22/23), or pilose (1/23). Upper glume apex acute (13/22), or acuminate (6/22), or attenuate (2/22), or setaceously attenuate (1/22); muticous (21/23), or mucronate (1/23), or awned (1/23); 1 -awned (1/1).

FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (3/23), or ovate (17/23); chartaceous (23/23); without keel (21/22), or keeled (1/22); wingless (23/23); 5–9–15 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (22/23), or scabrous (2/23); unwrinkled (23/23); without grooves (23/23); glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (3/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Lemma margins eciliate (20/23), or ciliolate (2/23), or ciliate (1/23). Lemma apex obtuse (1/23), or acute (4/23), or acuminate (12/23), or attenuate (2/23), or setaceously attenuate (3/23), or apiculate (1/23); muticous (19/23), or mucronate (3/23), or awned (3/23); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 8 -veined (3/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10–14 -veined (1/9). Palea keels separated (21/23), or contiguous above a sulcus (2/23); wingless (20/23), or winged (3/23); smooth (21/23), or scabrous (2/23); eciliate (14/23), or ciliolate (4/23), or ciliate (5/23). Palea surface glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (2/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (20/23), or with excurrent keel veins (3/23). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (23/23).

FLOWER Lodicules 3 (23/23); glabrous (9/23), or ciliate (15/23). Anthers 3 (23/23). Stigmas 2 (5/21), or 3 (16/21). Ovary glabrous (2/2).

FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (23/23); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (3/5), or oblong (1/5); apex unappendaged (21/22), or rostrate (1/22). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (2/2); 1 length of caryopsis.

DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (9), or Australasia (3), or North America (2).

Please cite this publication as detailed in How to Cite Version: 27th January 2014.