Collectors and donors

Botanists†and plant collectors

Burck, W. Dr

  • Dutch botanist. At the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java 1881-1902.

Dawe, Morley Thomas 1880-1943

  • Agricultural adviser, Colombia 1915-20. Tropical botanist working for several colonial agricultural services.

Elwes, Henry John†1846-1922

  • Naturalist and traveller.

Gamble, James Sykes†1847-1925

  • Indian Forest Service 1871-79; Director, Forestry School, Dehra Dun, 1890-99.

Hartweg, Carl Theodor†1812-71

  • Plant collector in Latin America.

Hay, Dr Alfred†1866-1932

  • Professor of Electrical Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 1908-23. Amateur naturalist who built up small collection of Indian timbers.

Henderson, Dr George†1836-1929

  • Director, Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta, 1872. MD, Aberdeen; Professor of Surgery, Lahore University. Medical officer and botanist to Lahore-Yarkand expedition 1870; plants sent to Kew.

Hermessen, JL

  • Traveller in Ecuadorian Andes, 1917.

Holland, John Henry†1869-1950

  • Kew gardener. Curator, Botanic Station, Old Calabar, Nigeria 1896-1901. Assistant, Kew Museums, 1901-34.

Karsten, Hermann†1817-1908

  • Botanist in Berlin and Vienna. Collected widely in south America, particularly Colombia 1844-56.

King, Sir George†1840-1909

  • MB Aberdeen 1865. Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Gardens and of the Cinchona cultivation in Bengal 1871-1898. Director, Botanical Survey of India 1891-98.

Ledger, Charles†1818-1905

  • Peru-based trader in cinchona bark. Collected Cinchona seeds from Mamani, his assistant, in 1865.

Lehmann, Friedrich Carl†1850-1903

  • Botanist collecting in Colombia, Ecuador, Germany, Guatemala.

Markham, Sir Clements Robert†1830-1916

  • Geographer and colonial official. At India Office 1854-1877; co-ordinated search for cinchona plants.

Pav√≥n Jim√nez, Jos√ Antonio

  • 1754-1840
  • Spanish botanist and explorer; collected extensively in Peru with Hip√≥lito Ruiz Lopez 1778-88. Substantial parts of Ruiz & Pavon’s collections were sold by the collectors.

Restrepo, Jos√ Manuel

  • 1781-1863
  • Probably the botanist in Colombia.

Ruiz Lopez, Hipólito

  • 1754-1815
  • Spanish botanist and explorer; collected extensively in Peru with Jos√ Antonio Pav√≥n Jim√nez 1778-88. Substantial parts of Ruiz & Pavon’s collections were sold by the collectors.

Rusby, Henry Hurd†1855-1940

  • Collected plants in South America 1885-6, 1896. Professor of botany at New York College of Pharmacy.

Spruce, Richard†1817-1893

  • Plant collector in Latin America 1849-67. In 1859 he was commissioned by the India Office to collect cinchona in Peru.

Thiselton-Dyer, Sir William Turner†1843-1928

  • Assistant Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1875-85); Director (1885-1905).

Trimen, Henry†1843-1896

  • Director, Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya 1879-1895. Graduated MB London 1865. Botanist, Natural History Museum 1869-79.

Vriese, Willem Hendrik de†1806-1862

  • Travelled in Dutch East Indies 1858-1861. Physician, Professor of botany in Amsterdam and Leiden.

Weddell, Hugh Algernon†1819-1877

  • 1819-1877. Physician and botanist, resident in France. Travelled in South America 1843-8; collected Cinchona in Bolivia 1853.

Importers, manufacturers, wholesalers

Amsterdam Sales

  • Commercial sales in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Bergen, Heinrich von

  • Droguerie-Makler (drug-broker) at Hamburg.


  • Nottingham-based pharmaceutical manufacturer and retailer, established 1883.

British Drug Houses

  • “Formed by the amalgamation of six British pharmaceutical companies in 1909; absorbed into Glaxo in 1968.”

Burroughs Wellcome & Co

  • Pharmaceutical manufacturer 1880-, merged with Glaxo 1995.

Castello, Edmund Frances

  • Merchant? Resident in Bogota, then Paris.

Chantre C

  • Merchant? Sent a letter to the Royal Geographical Society in 1876, on behalf of Geog. Soc. of Lyons, on any information aiding a study of possibility of opening up commercial route by rail or road from Algeria to Senegal. In view of the diversity of material sent to Kew, probably a merchant.

Christy & Co. [Thomas Christy & Co.]

  • Pharmaceutical Manuafacturer, London, 19th-20th centuries.

Cresswell, Messrs

  • Possibly Cresswell Bros, importers, of 1 Red Lion Square

Davy Hill & Son

  • Wholesale druggist, Southwark, London. Formed by the amalgamation of several companies, taking this name in 1896. From 1909 part of British Drug Houses.

Drew & Co

  • Not traced. Merchant?

Ellis & Hale

  • Drug & colonial brokers, London.

Godfrey & Cooke

  • Pharmacy, London. Established 1680; purchased by Savory & Moore in 1916.

Harrison & Self

  • Analytical chemist, London

Hearon, Squire and Francis

  • Wholesale druggists, London, since 1650. From 1909 part of British Drug Houses.

Herrings’ & Co

  • Wholesale druggist, London


  • Possibly Hodgkinson, Clark & Ward, pharmaceutical manufacturer. From 1909 part of British Drug Houses.

Isaac & Samuel, Messrs.

  • Not traced. Merchant?

Jenkins & Phillips

  • Not traced. Merchant?

Lewis & Peat

  • Colonial broker, London.

London Docks

  • Commercial sales in London.

London Sale

  • Commercial sales in London.

Mackey, Mackey & Co

  • Merchant, London.

Schrempft & Co

  • General merchant, Liverpool.

Shand, Haldane & Co.

  • Colonial merchant, London.

Southall & Co

  • Probably Southall Bros. & Barclay, Pharmaceutical manufacturer, Birmingham.

Whiffen, Thomas

  • Pharmaceutical manufacturer, London, 1819-1904.

Wright Layman & Umney

  • Wholesale druggist & manufacturer; took this name from 1876. Made “Wright's Coal Tar Soap”.


Amsterdam Exhibition 1883 [Internationale Koloniale en Untvoerhandel Tentoonstellung]

  • World’s Fair held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, May-November 1883.

Anderson, Major, Commissioner

  • British Empire Exhibition, Tanganyika [now Tanzania] Court
  • The Exhibition was held at Wembley, London, in 1924.

Colonial & Indian Exhibition

  • The Exhibition was held at South Kensington, London, in 1886.

Colonial & Indian Exhibition, Ceylon Commission

Colonial & Indian Exhibition, Fiji Commission

Colonial & Indian Exhibition, West Indian Commission

Paris Exhibition 1878 [Exposition Universelle]

  • World’s Fair.

Paris Exhibition 1878, Java Department

Gardens†and gardeners

Batcock, George†c. 1838-?

  • Kew gardener. Engaged as assistant to McIvor at Ootacamund, 1861.

Birschel, FW†fl. 1850s

  • Born Germany, died Liverpool. Kew gardener 1852-3; collected plants in Caracas 1854; Curator, Liverpool Botanic Garden 1858. Possibly the John W Birschel, Liverpool gardener in the 1861 census, aged 30.

Botanic Gardens Victoria

  • Now the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, Australia. Established in 1846, directed by Ferdinand von Mueller from 1857-1873.

Cross, Robert Mackenzie†1836-1911

  • Kew gardener 1857; to Ecuador for Cinhona 1859; to Brazil for Hevea 1876.

Gammie, James Alexander†1839-1924

  • Kew gardener 1861. Manager, Cinchona plantation, Sikkim 1865; Deputy Superintendent, Cinchona Dept. to 1897. From 1879 working with Mr C.H. Wood on extraction of alkaloids.

Glenlyon Estate

  • Plantation in Sri Lanka. No further information.

Glenmorgan Plantation

  • Tea plantation in Nilgiris, 25km NW of Ooty.

Henfold Estate

  • Tea plantation near Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka.

Mayfield Estate

  • Tea plantation in Nilgiris.

McIvor, William Graham†c. 1825-1876

  • Superintendent, Government Gardens, Ootacamund.

Morris, Sir Daniel†1844-1933

  • Assistant Director, Botanic Gardens, Ceylon 1877; Director, Botanical Department, Jamaica 1879-1886. Assistant Director, Kew, 1886-.

Ormidale Estate

  • Maskelyia, Sri Lanka.

St. Andrew’s Estate

  • Near Maskeliya, Sri Lanka.

Thomson, Robert†1840-1908

  • Kew gardener 1862. Botanic Gardens, Castleton, Jamaica 1862-79.

Institutions†and their staff

Amani Research Institute, Tanzania (Formerly Tanganyika)

  • Founded by the German colonial government c. 1902; continued as agricultural research centre under British Mandate 1918-1961. Now a nature reserve. Worked on cultivation ofCinchona pubescens in First World War.

Anderson, Dr Thomas†1832-1870

  • MD, Edinburgh University 1853; entered Bengal Medical Service 1854. Superintendant, Calcutta Botanic Garden 1861-68 (acting, from 1860). Went to Java in 1861 to collect plants and seeds of Cinchona calisaya (yellow bark tree) for plantations in India; he established this species in Darjeeling. His early death may have been as a result of malaria contracted during his work on cinchona: “He managed the first cinchona plantations, but the results were disappointing and his†Reports tell how, step by step, success was won. He was often on horseback for ten or twelve hours in the day, going from warm tropical valleys up to Darjeeling, which he would reach chilled and exhausted.” (Curtis’s Botanical Magazine)

Department of Agriculture, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Formerly Tanganyika)

Government Central Museum, Madras

  • Major museum in Madras (modern day Chennai), founded 1851. Herbarium moved in 1957 to Botanical Survey of India, Southern Circle, at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

Imperial Institute

  • Established in 1887 in South Kensington, London, carried out research into tropical products.

India Office

  • London office for administration of India 1858-1947.

Jackson, John Reader

  • 1837-1920. Curator, then Keeper, Museum of Economic Botany, Kew 1858-1901.

Pharmacologists, quinologists and analytical chemists

Bentley, Prof. Robert†1821-1893

  • Professor of Botany at King’s College London 1859-. Editor of the Pharmaceutical Journal.

Greenish, Henry George†1855-1933

  • Professor of Pharmaceutics to the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Guibourt, Nicolas Jean Baptiste Guillaume†1790-1867

  • Pharmacologist at Ecole de Pharmacie, Paris.

Hanbury, Daniel†1825-1875

  • Pharmacologist, partner in the pharmacy of Allen and Hanbury’s, and active at the Pharmaceutical Society.

Howard, David Lloyd†1866-1939

Howard, EM

Howard, John Eliot†1807-1883

  • Quinologist, trained by his father Luke Howard in the laboratory of Howards and Sons. From 1852 onwards published many analyses of cinchona barks, including historical material (Ruiz & Pavon), wild cinchona from the London Docks, and barks from experimental plantations in India. Also a keen botanist, who grew cinchona trees in a greenhouse at his home in north London. A ’sleeping partner’ in Howards and Sons.

Howards & Sons

  • Pharmaceutical manufacturer established 1797; Stratford factory operated 1805-1898, then at Ilford until 1975. Manufactured quinine alkaloids on a large scale from 1823 onwards.

Maton, William George

  • 1774-1835. Physician and naturalist.

Mialhe, Prof Louis

  • 1807-1886. Pharmacologist, Paris.

Pelletier, [Pierre] Joseph†1788-1842

  • Pharmacist and chemist in Paris. Working with Caventou, isolated quinine and cinchonine from cinchona bark in 1820. Pelletier then established a quinine extraction factory in Paris.

Pereira, Jonathan

  • 1804-1853. Pharmacologist, and physician at the London Hospital. Curator of the museum of the Royal College of Physicians. In 1851 he presented his collection of specimens to the Pharmaceutical Society.

Reichels, C.F.

  • “Reichel, apothecary at Hohenstein, in Saxony, who himself possesses one of the richest collections of Cinchona in Germany”

Vry, Johan Eliza de [also Vrij, Johan Eliza de]†1813-1898

  • Pharmacologist and quinologist, Netherlands.

Not traced

Apothretric, H

Buchanan, TJ

Cox, Captain

Dickson, AW

Dobbins, Edward J

Downward, Miss MG

Hesse, C.

Hill, AS

Jervis, WR

Lopez, M.


Martiquic Algisticsi

Meek, H.G.



Paul, Dr


Rogers, F.M.

Rose, BJ