Gathered fruits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra, Botswana (F.E.M. Cook)
Commiphora subglauca Engl.
Poupartia caffra (Sond.)H.Perrier
Sclerocarya caffra Sond.
Sclerocarya caffra Sond. var. dentata Engl.
Sclerocarya caffra Sond. var. oblongifoliata Engl.
Sclerocarya schweinfurthiana Schinz
Afrikaans - maroela ; Boran (Kenya) - didissa ; English- jelly plum, maroola nut, cat thorn, morula, cider tree , marula , maroola plum ; Kamba (Kenya) - muua ; Kwangali - ufuongo ; Lovedu - marula ; Maasai (Kenya) - ol-mangwai ; Meru (Kenya) - mura ; Ndebele - iganu , ikanyi , umganu , umkano ; Pedi [fruits] - lerula , marula ; Pedi [tree] - morula , merula ; Pokot (Kenya) - oruluo ; Sebei (Kenya) - katetalum ; Shangaan - nkanyi, inkanyi ; Shona - mutsomo , mukwakwa , mushomo , muganu , mupfura ;Shona [fruits] - pfura ; Shona [tree] - mufura , mafuna , marula ; Swahili, Diga (Kenya) - mngongo ; Swati - umganu ; Swazi - umganu; Tonga - tsua , tsula , umganu ; Tswana - morula ; Tugen (Kenya) - tololokwo ; Zulu [fruits]- amaganu ; Zulu [seeds] - umganu ; Zulu [tree] - umganu .
Native - Zaire (Katanga) , Ethiopia, Kenya , Tanzania (incl.Zanzibar)  , Angola ,Malawi , Mozambique  , Zambia , Zimbabwe ,Botswana    , Cape Province , Caprivi Strip , Namibia   , Natal   [1669 Swaziland  , Transvaal   , Madagascar.
Introduced - Mauritius, Oman, Tamil Nadu.
Altitude 5-1200 m a.s.l. 
Nutritional Analyses - infructescences ; Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - infructescences   ; Unspecified Lipids - infructescences , seeds; Proteins - seeds ; Tannins - bark , gum/resins .
- Infructescences (fruits, raw       ; fruits, jams/jellies   ; fruits, beers     [1340 fruits, spirits  ; fruits, non-alcoholic beverages; potable water; famine food; fruit pulp, jams/jellies ; fruits, wines )
- 'Roots' (potable water) - Exudates (resin )
- Infructescences (flavourings; preservatives)
- Seeds (seed oil, preservatives )
- Bark (game mammals, browse)
- Aerial Parts (stems, browse; leaves, cattle )
BEE PLANTS (nectar source )
- Unspecified Materials (seed oil, cosmetics ; bark, beehives; kernels, illuminants ) - Wood (floors; boxes; tool handles; boats/ships; furniture; veneer; joinery; tools; carved wood ; yokes; membranophones  ; plates/bowls   ; mortars ; toys/games ; ornaments  )
- Unspecified Social Uses (kernels )
- Smoking Materials/Drugs (snuff)
- Antifertility Agents (fruits; seeds, birth control)
- Arthropoda (fruits, Insecta, death ; seed oil, Insecta)
- Circulatory System Disorders (bark, humans, haemorrhoids)
- Digestive System Disorders (bark, humans, laxative; bark, humans, stomach; bark, humans, diarrhoea  ; bark, humans, liver )  ; bark, humans, fever ; bark, humans, digestive system  ; leaves, humans, venereal diseases (non-specified); bark, humans, malaria  ; fruits,humans, arthropod infestations )
- Inflammation (bark, humans)
- Injuries (leaves, humans, wounds, dressings; leaves, humans,burns, dressings)
- Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders (bark, humans, rheumatism )
- Pain (bark, humans, teeth; bark, humans, analgesic)
- Poisonings (leaves, humans, insect stings)
- Skin/Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders (bark, humans, antiseptic; bark, humans, warts; leaves, humans, boils, dressings)
- Boundaries/Barriers/Supports (live fences )
May be present in Uganda
Throughout south-eastern, eastern and northern Botswana with the highest densities occurring in the moister eastern areas 
Fruits: The size of a small plum and pale yellow when ripe 
FOOD - INFRUCTESCENCES
Fruit pulp, jams/jellies: A jam or jelly made from the fruit pulp is rich in vitamin C and protein 
Fruits, alchoholic beverages: Mukumbi is the Shona name of the wine made from the fruits 
Fruits, beers, spirits: Whole fruit used in Mozambique and Eastern Transvaal for brewing beer and, in some districts, a spirit is distilled from it 
Fruits, beers: Made by stamping the ripe fruit in a 'kika' to remove the nuts and then adding 50% water to the pulp. After 24 hours it is strained and ready to drink but becomes more potent with age. After four days it goes off 
Fruits: Bushmen in Namibia eat the flesh of the fruits 
Fruits: Eaten by Moshaweng Tlokwa of Botswana 
Fruits: Eaten in Malawi (Williamson, 1960, cited in Grivetti, 1981) 
Fruits: May be eaten fresh or dried for later use 
Fruits: The outer skin has a pungent apple-like odour and the flavour resembling litchi, apple, guava and pineapple 
FOOD - SEEDS
Kernel used as food by East African coastal fishermen (Weiss,1979, cited in Grivetti, 1981)  Kernels are considered a great delicacy, despite the hard and thick shell   Kernels eaten by Gwembe Tonga of Zambia. Available October to November (Scudder, 1971, cited in Grivetti, 1981) 
Kernels, porridges: The Pedi use the ground up kernel for making a porridge 
Nut is eaten by Moshaweng Tlokwa of Botswana 
Other seed parts, condiments: The Pedi use the embryo as a condiment 
FOOD - EXUDATES
Resin: Eaten by Moshaweng Tlokwa of Botswana 
ANIMAL FOOD - AERIAL PARTS
Leaves: Cattle eat fallen leaves 
A bee plant in Botswana. Provides abundant nectar but flowers only 8-10 days in October-December 
Wood properties, degradation: Warps badly on drying so only useful for rough work 
Wood properties, durability: Liable to attacks by borers 
Wood properties, workability: Light and woolly to saw 
Wood properties: Wood is white, drying to pink 
MATERIALS - UNSPECIFIED MATERIALS
Kernels, illuminants: The kernels burn with a bright flame and are used as a candle substitute 
MATERIALS - WOOD
In Zimbabwe the wood is used for making dishes, mealie stamping mortars, drums, toys and curios and for carving. It is used for similar purposes in the Eastern Transvaal and the Venda make divining bowls and drums from it 
Membranophones: Used for drum-making for use in war and people summoning 
Used to make bowls by the Pokot, Kenya 
MATERIALS - TANNINS/DYESTUFFS
Bark, tannins: Madagascar bark contains 3.5% tannin. Transvaal bark, collected during October before the appearance of the leaf, contains 20.5% tannin 
Gum, tannins: Gum is rich in tannin 
MATERIALS - LIPIDS
Seed oil: Kernel rich in non-drying oil, 53.5-60% 
SOCIAL USES - UNSPECIFIED SOCIAL USES
Kernels: Kernel given as a gift is the greatest mark of friendship; the fruit of the tree is much prized, hence the value of the gift 
SOCIAL USES - 'RELIGIOUS' USES
Bark, ritual/religion/magic: A decoction of the bark is taken internally by some African tribesto remove defilement caused by eating food in the house of relatives where there has been a death without the performance of the necessary purification rites 
Bark, ritual/religion/magic: The Venda administer powdered bark to expectant mothers to regulate the sex of the child, bark from the male tree for a boy, bark from the female tree for a girl 
Bark, ritual/religion/magic: The Zulu and Thonga use a decoction of the bark as a ritual cleansing emetic before marriage 
Fruits, ritual/religion/magic: The fruit juice is used in certain Shangaan and Thonga religious ceremonies 
NON-VERTEBRATE POISONS - ARTHROPODA
Fruits, Insecta, death: Zulus regard the fruits as a potent insecticide 
MEDICINES - DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DISORDERS
Bark, diarrhoea: A decoction of the bark is taken in half-pint doses for diarrhoea 
Bark, human, liver: Decoction of the bark is taken by the Pokot, Kenya for a badliver 
MEDICINES - INFECTIONS/INFESTATIONS
Bark, digestive system: A decoction of the bark is taken in half-pint doses for dysentery 
Bark, humans, digestive system:
Decoction of the bark is taken by the Pokot, Kenya for dysentry 
Bark, malaria: A decoction of the bark has been used prophylactically and curatively in malaria. Also taken as a small dose of brandy tincture and as powder 
Fruits, arthropod infestations: Zulus use the fruits for destroying ticks 
MEDICINES - MUSCULAR-SKELETAL SYSTEM DISORDERS
Bark, humans, rheumatism: Decoction of the bark is used by the Pokot, Kenya 
Fruits: Have four times as much vitamin C as the average South African orange 
Fruits: Vitamin C content is 54 mg/100 g. Fruit juice contains 2 mg/ml 
CHEMICAL ANALYSES - MISCELLANEOUS
Chemical analysis of fresh marula fruit (Wehmeyer, 1967): Edible portion of marula seed (mg/100 g): Calcium 106; Magnesium 467; Iron 0.42; Sodium 338; Potassium 677; Copper 1.99; Phosphorus 836; Thiamin 0.04; Riboflavin 0.12; Nicotinic acid 0.71.
Marula seed (g/100 g):
Moisture 4.0; Ash 4.2; Protein 30.9; Fat 57.0; Fibre 2.4; Carbohydrate (by difference) 1.5  Chemical analysis of fresh marula fruit (Wehmeyer, 1967): Edible portion of marula flesh (mg/100 g): Vitamin C 67.9; Calcium 6.2; Magnesium 10.5; Iron 0.1; Sodium trace; Potassium 54.8; Copper 0.04; Phosphorus 8.7; Thiamin 0.03; Riboflavin 0.05; Nicotinic acid 0.25.
Marula flesh (g/100 g): Moisture 91.7; Ash 0.2; Protein 0.5; Fat 0.1; Fibre 0.5; Carbohydrate (by difference) 7.0  Fruits:
Fruit pulp contains citric and malic acids and a sugar 
Kernels: Contain 60% non-drying oil and also have a high protein content 
Seed oil: Contains up to 28% protein and some iodine 
Occurs mainly in frost-free warm areas 
Frequently on or in association with hills 
Various types 
Flowering, Botswana: 8-10 days in October-December 
Usually dioecious 
Can be propagated from truncheons 
January to March or April 
The average yield of fruit per tree for 11 Botswana trees was 36,550 fruit, weighing approximately 550 kg 
Has a wide range of uses and should be considered for large-scale planting 
One of 7 plants in Botswana considered suitable for immediate commercial utilisation, if it occurs in sufficient volume to be harvested without detriment to the local population 
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